Heteropogon melanocarpus

Family:POACEAE
Species:Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Bentham
Common Name:Sweet Tanglehead
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:**
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:HEME
Plant Notes:Sweet Tanglehead is an introduced annual member of the grass family. It is likely native to the Eastern Hemisphere but now occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas throughout the world. In Alabama it occurs in the southeastern portion of the state. Sweet Tanglehead grows in dry sandy soil in full or partial sun. It can be found on roadsides, in sandhills, in pine woodlands, and around the edges of fields. It is an annual with a fibrous root system. Prominent prop roots occur on the lower 3-4 nodes. Stems are from 2-5 feet in height. The stems are often branched above the middle. The stems are green or reddish in color and glabrous. The leaf sheaths are glabrous with a row of glandular depressions along the keel. The leaf blades have dark depressions along the keel and papillose trichomes near the base. Crushed leaves have a citronella smell. Flowers are produced in terminal and axillary racemes. The lower portion of the raceme consists of sessile, awnless, staminate or sterile spikelets. The upper portion consists of pairs of spikelets where one spikelet of the pair is sessile, fertile, and awned, and the other spikelet is pedicellate and staminate or sterile. The fruit is an awned grain resembling that of our native Needlegrass (Piptochaetium avenaceum (Linnaeus) Parodi). The grain is dark brown or blackish in color with an awn of 2-3 inches in length. The fruit comes to a sharp tip at the base. The awns are coiled together in the raceme, and fruit individually uncoil and disperse. This species seems to be expanding its range in Alabama, with many new populations appearing.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyPOACEAE - Grass family
Genus Heteropogon
Species Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Bentham - Sweet Tanglehead

Citation

Citation HETEROPOGON MELANOCARPUS (Elliott) Elliott ex Bentham, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 71. 1881.
Basionym: Andropogon melanocarpus Elliott 1816.
Type: GEORGIA: "Between Fort Barrington on the Alatamaha, and Jefferson on the Satilla", s.d., Habersham s.n. (holotype: CHARL?).

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Andropogon melanocarpus Andropogon melanocarpus Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 1: 146. 1816. GEORGIA: "Between Fort Barrington on the Alatamaha, and Jefferson on the Satilla", s.d., Habersham s.n. (holotype: CHARL?).
Andropogon polystichus Andropogon polystichus Hochstetter ex Steudel, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 369. 1854. ETHIOPIA: Dscheladscheranne, s.d., Schimper 2012 (holotype: P).
Andropogon scrobiculatus Andropogon scrobiculatus (Nees von Esenbeck) Kunth, Revis. Gramin., Suppl. 40. 1830.Trachypogon scrobiculatus Nees von Esenbeck 1829. 
Cymbopogon melanocarpus Cymbopogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 1: 289. 1824 ("1825").Andropogon melanocarpus Elliott 1816. 
Heteropogon acuminatus Heteropogon acuminatus Trinius, MĂ©m. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, Ser. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 254. 1832. BRAZIL
Heteropogon polystichus Heteropogon polystichus (Hochstetter ex Steudel) Hochstetter, Flora 39: 28. 1856.Andropogon polystichus Hochstetter ex Steudel 1854. 
Heteropogon scrobiculatus Heteropogon scrobiculatus (Nees von Esenbeck) E. Fournier, Mexic. Pl. 2: 64. 1886.Trachypogon scrobiculatus Nees von Esenbeck 1829. 
Sorghum melanocarpum Sorghum melanocarpum (Elliott) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 792. 1891.Andropogon melanocarpus Elliott 1816. 
Stipa melanocarpa Stipa melanocarpa (Elliott) Muhlenberg, Descr. Gram. 183. 1817.Andropogon melanocarpus Elliott 1816. 
Trachypogon scrobiculatus Trachypogon scrobiculatus Nees von Esenbeck, in Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2(1): 347. 1829. BRAZIL: Piaui:

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Dale, Geneva, Houston, Mobile

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, UWAL, UWFP

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1992 - 2006

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
JSU101986 Houston 10 Sep 1994 John R. MacDonald
7657
JSU
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Bentham
UNA00066198 Houston 10 Nov 2006 Alvin R. Diamond
17225
UNA
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Ell. ex Benth.
TROY000035362 Dale 09 Sep 2012 Alvin R. Diamond
23318
TROY
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Benth.
TROY000035600 Houston 26 Sep 2006 Robert Kral
97663
TROY
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Bentham
UWAL0014954 Dale 09 Sep 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
23318
UWAL
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Benth.
TROY000012251 Houston 16 Sep 2005 Alfred Schotz
1994
TROY
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Bentham
TROY000012250 Dale 11 Nov 2001 John R. MacDonald
13964
TROY
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Bentham
UWFP000006807acc Mobile 28 Sep 1982 James R. Burkhalter
8515
UWFP
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Benth.
TROY000012252 Houston 10 Nov 2006 Alvin R. Diamond
17225
TROY
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Bentham
UNA00048600 Houston 08 Sep 1992 John R. MacDonald
5455
UNA
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Ell. ex Benth.
TROY000042956 Geneva 01 Oct 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26868
TROY
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Elliott ex Bentham
UWAL0010219 Houston 26 Sep 2006 Kral, R.
97663
UWAL
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Ell. ex Benth.
UWAL0009172 Houston 10 Nov 2006 Diamond, A.R.
17225
UWAL
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Ell. ex Benth
AUA000017565 Houston 8 SEP 1992 MACDONALD, JOHN R.
5455
AUA
HETEROPOGON MELANOCARPUS (ELL.) ELL. EX BENTH.
UNA00057143 Dale 11 Nov 2001 John R. MacDonald
13964
UNA
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Ell. ex Benth.
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