Cenchrus echinatus

Family:POACEAE
Species:Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
Common Name:Southern Sandbur; Hedgehog Grass; Bristly Sandspur
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Annual
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Southern Sandspur is a native annual grass in the Grass family (Poaceae). It can be found in the southern half of Alabama. Southern Sandspur grows in fields, on beaches, in roadside ditches, in vacant lots, and in other disturbed habitats. It prefers dry, sandy soils. It is an ascending herb, rooting at the nodes. It has a fibrous root system. Stems are from 1-3 feet in length. The leaves are linear, 3-8 inches in length, sparsely pubescent above with papillose based hairs, glabrous below, with scaberulous margins. The leaf sheath is shorter than to as long as the internode and is glabrous except for hairs along the open margin. The ligule is a ring of erect hairs on the light-colored collar. Flowers are produced in spike-like terminal panicles. Flowers are produced in pairs inside of a cup-like involucre. The involucre has an inner and an outer whorl of flattened bristles. The outer bristles are about ½ the length of the inner bristles. The inner bristles are often purplish in color. There are spines between the two whorls of bristles. The spines and bristles are retrorsely barbed. The fruit is a grain. Southern Sandspur can be a serious weed of row crops. The sharp spines and bristles of the involucre can easily puncture flesh.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyPOACEAE - Grass family
Genus Cenchrus
Species Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus - Southern Sandbur; Hedgehog Grass; Bristly Sandspur

Citation

Citation CENCHRUS ECHINATUS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1050. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: Without data, Herb. van Royen s.n. (lectotype: L 912.356-116). Lectotypified by Veldkamp, in C. E. Jarvis et al., Regnum Veg. 127: 31. 1993.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Cenchrus brevisetus Cenchrus brevisetus E. Fournier, Mexic. Pl. 2: 50. 1886. MEXICO: Veracruz: Valle de Orizaba,
Cenchrus cavanillesii Cenchrus cavanillesii Tausch, Flora 20: 97. 1837.  
Cenchrus crinitus Cenchrus crinitus Mez, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 7: 48. 1917. CHILE/COLOMBIA
Cenchrus echinatus var. brevisetus Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus, var. brevisetus (E. Fournier) Lamson-Scribner, in Millspaugh, Publ. Field Columbian Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 26. 1900.Cenchrus brevisetus E. Fournier 1886. 
Cenchrus echinatus var. glabratus Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus, var. glabratus F. Brown, Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 84: 66. 1931.  
Cenchrus echinatus var. hillebrandianus Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus, var. hillebrandianus (Hitchcock) F. Brown, Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 84: 65. 1931.Cenchrus hillebrandianus Hitchcock 1922. 
Cenchrus echinatus var. morisonii Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus, var. morisonii Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 765. 1891. PUERTO RICO: Guayama, 16 Mar 1874, Kuntze 1521 (holotype: NY).
Cenchrus echinatus var. normalis Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus, var. normalis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 765. 1891, nom. inadmiss.Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus 1753 
Cenchrus echinatus var. pennisetoides Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus, var. pennisetoides F. Brown, Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 84: 66. 1931. MARQUESAS ISLANDS: Nukuhiva: Hakaui, 15 Jul 1921, Brown 657 (holotype: ?).
Cenchrus hexaflorus Cenchrus hexaflorus Blanco, Fl. Filip. 36. 1837.  
Cenchrus hillebrandianus Cenchrus hillebrandianus Hitchcock, Mem. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Mus. 8: 211. 1922. HAWAII: Oahu: Waikiki, near Honolulu, 19 Jun 1916, Hitchcock 13801 (holotype: US).
Cenchrus insularis Cenchrus insularis Lamson-Scribner, in Millspaugh, Publ. Field Columbian Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 26. 1900. MEXICO: Yucatan: Pajaros Island, Alacran Shoals, s.d., Millspaugh 1759 (holotype: F; isotype: US).
Cenchrus pungens Cenchrus pungens Kunth, in Humboldt et al., Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 115. 1816. ECUADOR ("PERU"): Guayas: Prope Guayaquil, s.d., Humboldt & Bonpland s.n. (holotype: P).
Panicastrella muricata Panicastrella muricata Moench, Methodus 206. 1753, nom. illegit.Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus 1753. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Coffee, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, Escambia, Geneva, Henry, Houston, Lee, Macon, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Russell

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1998 - 2006

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000011743 Coffee 03 Sep 2006 Jake Hendrix
31
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
UNA00059471 Autauga 07 Sep 2002 D. D. Spaulding
11547
UNA
Cenchrus echinatus L.
TROY000011742 Butler 02 Dec 2006 Alvin R. Diamond
17267
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000026533 Butler 04 Sep 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19883
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011745 Coffee 17 Jul 1999 Brian H. Martin
93
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011749 Crenshaw 20 May 1991 Grant Nichols
12
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015681 Crenshaw 30 OCT 1971 KAPA, MILTON
110
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000035345 Bullock 19 Jun 2012 Bailee Dykes
872
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011748 Covington 05 Nov 2002 Kenneth Thomason
10
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011753 Escambia 12 Nov 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
18652
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015682 Dallas 25 OCT 1987 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
3739
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000011755 Pike 29 Oct 2004 Alvin R. Diamond
14860
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015693 Russell 5 OCT 1980 JACKSON, MIKE
001
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000045096 Autauga 07 Sep 2017 Matthew Parker
1192
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015684 Henry 17 JUL 1971 GUTHRIE, C. D.
140
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000026372 Autauga 07 Sep 2002 Daniel D. Spaulding
11547
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000024451 Russell 12 SEP 2004 SPAULDING, DANIEL D.
12168
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
UWAL0012589 Covington 19 Sep 2012 Spaulding, Dan
13500
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
UNA00003959 Mobile _ Sep 1890 Charles Mohr
s.n.
UNA
Cenchrus echinatus L.
UWAL0008812 Butler 04 Sep 2008 Diamond, A.R.
19883
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus L.
AUA000015678 Conecuh 17 JUL 1969 WEAVER, JIMMY
099
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
AUA000015683 Geneva 25 JUL 1969 MOORE, HAROLD D.
415-69
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000011744 Coffee 04 Sep 2006 Carla Roberts
33
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
SAMF0001275 Dallas 29 Oct 1988 Anderson, Jan
66
SAMF
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011746 Coffee 08 Nov 2002 Thomas Shea
5
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
UNA00065443 Russell 12 Sep 2004 D. D. Spaulding
12168
UNA
Cenchrus echinatus L.
UWAL0012642 Monroe 25 Sep 2012 Spaulding, Dan
13641
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011754 Geneva 12 Oct 2002 Aaron Peters
4
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015680 Crenshaw 26 NOV 1995 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
10119
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
UWAL0008813 Houston 09 Oct 1994 MacDonald, John R.
7912
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus L.
TROY000011757 Russell 12 Sep 2004 Daniel D. Spaulding
12168
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
SAMF0001642 Pike 18 Oct 2006 Brown, Chris
s.n.
SAMF
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011752 Dale 09 Nov 1999 Tiffany Pennington
307
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000029857 Barbour 30 Oct 2004 Keith Dasinger
10
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011747 Coffee 22 Oct 2002 Joe Davis
9
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015676 Barbour 5 OCT 1972 HAGAN, JACK H.
108
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
UWAL0011483 Bullock 19 Jun 2012 Dykes, Bailee
0872
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015691 Macon 12 OCT 1973 WRIGHT, DAVID
103
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000040704 Houston 19 Jun 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25223
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
UWAL0042912 Baldwin 27 Aug 2001 Larsen, H.S.
822
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus L.
JSU107458 Baldwin 02 Sep 1970 R. Kral
41035
JSU
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015687 Lee 19 JUL 1966 ROGERS, KENNETH E.
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
UNA00056344 Coffee 31 Dec 1998 John R. MacDonald
12494
UNA
Cenchrus echinatus L.
TROY000011756 Pike 12 Oct 2002 Jenna Weber
3
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015675 Baldwin 2 SEP 1970 KRAL, ROBERT
41035
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000029381 Montgomery 08 Sep 2009 Alvin R. Diamond
20911
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015692 Pike 13 SEP 1994 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9382
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000026534 Montgomery 23 Nov 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
18680
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011750 Dale 13 Jul 1997 Hannelore Rundell
276
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015688 Lee 24 JUL 1971 KIRKLAND, D. L.
151
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
UNA00066609 Butler 02 Dec 2006 Alvin R. Diamond
17267
UNA
Cenchrus echinatus L.
UWAL0009772 Dallas 04 Feb 2012 Keener, Brian R.
6838
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus L.
AUA000015679 Conecuh 9 NOV 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
1870
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
AUA000015677 Bullock 5 SEP 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
5457
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
AUA000015686 Lee 3 AUG 1967 TEEM, DAVID H.
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
AUA000015685 Henry 13 AUG 1960 JONES, JR., SAMUEL B.
255
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
UWAL0030936 Henry 06 Aug 1996 Kral, R.
86425
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus L.
AUA000015689 Lee 9 AUG 1960 JONES, JR., SAMUEL B.
205
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000033097 Escambia 08 Jul 2009 Curtis J. Hansen
4099
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000044134 Geneva 10 Nov 2016 Cameron Byrd
628
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
UWAL0039893 Geneva 10 Nov 2016 Byrd, Cameron
628
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
TROY000011760 Conecuh 19 Nov 2005 Alvin R. Diamond
16059
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000024842 Escambia 8 JUL 2009 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
4099
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000011751 Dale 18 Jul 1999 Brian F. Prazinko
s.n.
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000015690 Lee 17 JUL 1972 JOHNSTON, W.
136
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
UWAL0016384 Houston 19 Jun 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25223
UWAL
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
AUA000028684 Dallas 4 FEB 2012 KEENER, BRIAN R.
6838
AUA
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS L.
TROY000035996 Dallas 04 Feb 2012 Brian R. Keener
6838
TROY
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
SAMF0001276 Dallas 04 Feb 2012 Keener, Brian R.
6838
SAMF
Cenchrus echinatus Linnaeus
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