Firmiana simplex

Family:MALVACEAE
Species:Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
Common Name:Chinese Parasol Tree; Phoenix Tree; Japanese Varnish Tree
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Tree
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Chinese Parasol Tree is an introduced deciduous tree in the Hibiscus family (Malvaceae). It is native to China. In Alabama it can be found in the southern two-thirds of the state. Chinese Parasol Tree is sometimes planted as an ornamental and escapes to urban woodlands, to roadsides, to ravines, and to mesic deciduous woodlands. It is a single or multi-trunked tree reaching heights of 60 feet. The bark is green or gray-green, smooth, with vertical yellow or white stripes. Leaves are petiolate, alternate (though often crowded near the ends of branches), ovate in outline, 3-5 lobed, minutely stellate pubescent on the lower surface, and entire. The leaves turn lemon yellow for a short period before falling in the autumn. Small fragrant, greenish-white flowers are produced in large terminal panicles. Flowers are unisexual with a 5-lobed calyx that is divided nearly to the base. The lobes of the calyx are reflexed. Staminate flowers have 10-15 stamens. Pistillate flowers have a 5-locular ovary. The fruit is a follicle which splits along one side revealing 3-5 seeds adhering to the margins. Chinese Parasol Tree is listed as a category 2 invasive species by the Alabama Invasive Plant Council.—A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyMALVACEAE - Mallow family
Genus Firmiana
Species Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright - Chinese Parasol Tree; Phoenix Tree; Japanese Varnish Tree

Citation

Citation FIRMIANA SIMPLEX (Linnaeus) W. Wight, U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Bull. 142: 67. 1909.
Basionym: Hibiscus simplex Linnaeus 1763.
Type: **

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Caucanthus platanifolius Caucanthus platanifolius (Linnaeus f.) Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 72. 1838.Sterculia platanifolia Linnaeus f. 1782. 
Firmiana simplex var. glabra Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wight, var. glabra Hatusima, J. Jap. Bot. 24: 83. 1949.  
Hibiscus simplex Hibiscus simplex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 977. 1763.  
Firmiana platanifolia Firmiana platanifolia (Linnaeus f.) Marsili, Saggi Sci. Lett. Accad. Padova 1: 106. 1786.Sterculia platanifolia Linnaeus f. 1782. 
Sterculia platanifolia Sterculia platanifolia Linnaeus f., Suppl. Pl. 423. 1782 ("1781").  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Butler, Calhoun, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, Jefferson, Lee, Marengo, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Shelby

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000009318 Dale 03 Jul 2000 Tiffany Pennington
847
TROY
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
TROY000039280 Montgomery 03 Jun 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25138
TROY
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
AUA_ACC063573 Baldwin 20 NOV 2003 CARR, CAROLYN A.
AUA
FIRMIANA SIMPLEX (L.) W. WIGHT
TROY000024132 Butler 29 Jul 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19659a
TROY
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
AUA_ACC017123 Conecuh 3 AUG 1969 WEAVER, JIMMY
114
AUA
FIRMIANA SIMPLEX (L.) W. WIGHT
JSU135165 Calhoun 28 Oct 1992 D. D. Spaulding
3045
JSU
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
UWAL0038697 Jefferson 06 Oct 2018 England, J. Kevin
9557
UWAL
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wight
AUA_ACC044036 Conecuh 31 AUG 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
AUA
FIRMIANA SIMPLEX (L.) W. WIGHT
JSU135169 Monroe 2 Nov 1997 R. D. Whetstone
19124
JSU
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
UWAL0043121 Baldwin 10 Aug 2002 Larsen, H.S.
1036
UWAL
Firmiana simplex (L.) W. Wight
JSU135168 Monroe 2 Nov 1997 R. D. Whetstone
19124
JSU
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
UWAL0016436 Montgomery 03 Jun 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25138
UWAL
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W.Wright
SAMF0003414 Shelby 25 Jun 2003 Davenport, L. J.
2873
SAMF
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
TROY000009317 Pike 19 May 1989 Lola M. Blanton
s.n.
TROY
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
TROY000030671 Lee 02 Aug 1968 Angeline H Honnell
s.n.
TROY
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
UWAL0010536 Marengo 19 Jul 2012 England, J. Kevin
3743
UWAL
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
JSU135166 Calhoun 28 Oct 1992 D. D. Spaulding
3045
JSU
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
AUA_ACC063572 Baldwin 20 NOV 2003 CARR, CAROLYN A.
AUA
FIRMIANA SIMPLEX (L.) W. WIGHT
AUA_ACC052442 Crenshaw 26 JUN 1994 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
9255
AUA
FIRMIANA SIMPLEX (L.) W. WIGHT
TROY000043524 Dallas 24 Jul 2015 Brian R. Keener
9034
TROY
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
UWAL0030303 Dallas 24 Jul 2015 Keener, Brian R.
9034
UWAL
Firmiana simplex (L.) W.Wight
UWAL0016969 Mobile 07 May 2011 Horne, Howard E.
1612
UWAL
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wight
TROY000046420 Autauga 05 Nov 2017 Alvin R. Diamond
27975
TROY
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
JSU139918 Jefferson 11 Jun 2000 D. D. Spaulding
10886
JSU
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
AUA_ACC060716 Lee 15 MAY 1958 BAYARD, G. LEE
AUA
FIRMIANA SIMPLEX (L.) W. WIGHT
USAM000014848 Mobile 07 Nov 1971 Michael G. Lelong
s.n.
USAM
Firmiana simplex (Linnaeus) W. Wright
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