Datura stramonium

Family:SOLANACEAE
Species:Datura stramonium Linnaeus
Common Name:Jimsonweed; Thorn Apple; Devil's Apple
Habitat:Disturbed soils.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Annual
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Jimsonweed is an introduced herbaceous annual in the Nightshade family (Solanaceae). It is believed to be native to Mexico, but now occurs in temperate and tropical areas worldwide. In Alabama it can be found throughout the state. Jimsonweed occurs in pastures, in feed lots, in fields, on roadsides, and in other disturbed habitats. It is an annual with a tap root. Stems are freely branched forming a rounded or flat-topped mound and are 3-4 feet in height. The stems are green or purple in color and glabrous. Leaves are alternate, petiolate, elliptic to ovate in outline, with large teeth along the margins. The leaves are glabrous. Both the stems and leaves emit a foul odor when crushed. Flowers are solitary in the forks of branches. The flowers are tubular with 5 teeth. They are white in color with a purple throat, glabrous, and fragrant. The flowers open at night and last a single day. The fruit is an erect spiny capsule. All parts of the plant are toxic, containing the alkaloids atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine. Jimsonweed is a corruption of the name Jamestown Weed. During Bacon’s Rebellion (1676), British soldiers sent to Jamestown Virginia to suppress the rebellion were fed boiled Jimsonweed and spent 11 days in altered mental states. Soldiers were reported to have walked around blowing feathers in the air; another soldier threw straw darts at the feathers; one kissed and fondled other soldiers; and several walked around naked or sat in corners grinning and laughing.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilySOLANACEAE - Nightshade/Potato family
Genus Datura
Species Datura stramonium Linnaeus - Jimsonweed; Thorn Apple; Devil's Apple

Citation

Citation DATURA STRAMONIUM Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 179. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: Cult. in Netherlands, without data, Herb. Clifford 55.1 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by D'Arcy, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 624. 1973.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Datura ferox Datura ferox Nees von Esenbeck, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 75. 1834.  
Datura inermis Datura inermis Jussieu ex Jacquin, Hort. Bot. Vindob. 3: 44, pl. 82. 1776.  
Datura loricata Datura loricata Sieber ex Bernhardi, J. Pharm. Aerzte Apotheker 26: 151. 1833.  
Datura lurida Datura lurida Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 131. 1796, nom. illegit.Datura stramonium Linnaeus 1753. 
Datura parviflora Datura parviflora Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 131. 1796, nom. illegit.Datura tatula Linnaeus 1762. 
Datura stramonium var. chalybea Datura stramonium Linnaeus, var. chalybea W. D. J. Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 510. 1837, nom. illegit.Datura stramonium Linnaeus, var. tatula (Linnaeus) Torrey 1824; Datura tatula Linnaeus 1762. 
Datura stramonium var. inermis Datura stramonium Linnaeus, var. inermis (Jussieu ex Jacquin) Fernald, Rhodora 40: 184. 1938.Datura inermis Jussieu ex Jacquin 1776. 
Stramonium foetidum Stramonium foetidum Scopoli, Fl. Carniol., ed. 2. 1: 157. 1772.Datura stramonium Linnaeus 1753. 
Stramonium tatula Stramonium tatula (Linnaeus) Moench, Methodus 456. 1794.Datura tatula Linnaeus 1762. 
Stramonium vulgare Stramonium vulgare Moench, Methodus 456. 1794, nom. illegit.Stramonium foetidum Scopoli 1772; Datura stramonium Linnaeus 1753. 
Stramonium spinosum Stramonium spinosum Lamarck, Fl. Franc. 2: 256. 1779 ("1778"), nom. illegit.Stramonium foetidum Scopoli 1772; Datura stramonium Linnaeus 1753. 
Stramonium vulgatum Stramonium vulgatum Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 243. 1791, nom. illegit.Stramonium foetidum Scopoli 1772; Datura stramonium Linnaeus 1753. 
Datura stramonium var. tatula Datura stramonium Linnaeus, var. tatula (Linnaeus) Torrey, Fl. N. Middle United States 1: 232. 1824.Datura tatula Linnaeus 1762. 
Datura tatula Datura tatula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 256. 1762. Without data (lectotype: LINN 243.2). Lectotypified by Hadkins et al., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 125: 305, f. 15. 1998.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Baldwin, Blount, Butler, Calhoun, Cherokee, Cleburne, Colbert, Crenshaw, Dale, DeKalb, Etowah, Greene, Jackson, Jefferson, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, Madison, Marengo, Marion, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Morgan, Randolph, St. Clair, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
JSU134181 DeKalb 1 Sep 1982 Randall Black
s.n.
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134187 Jackson 3 Jul 1998 K. R. Brodeur
965
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134189 Jackson 28 Jul 1975 R. D. Whetstone
5330
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
USAM000014716 Baldwin 15 Jun 1974 Michael G. Lelong
7852
USAM
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134193 Marshall 24 Jul 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2426
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134184 Etowah 17 Jul 1994 L. M. Hodge
2857
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134177 Calhoun 24 Aug 1982 R. D. Whetstone
11983
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134200 Morgan 5 Aug 1974 R. D. Whetstone
3350
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134198 St. Clair 12 Jul 1969 Jerry Ellard
s.n.
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UNA00038585 Greene 13 Aug 1969 Joab L. Thomas
2393
UNA
Datura stramonium L. var. tatula (L.) Torr.
JSU134196 Randolph 28 Jul 1988 C. F. Nixon
4136
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UWAL0034100 Cleburne 20 Sep 2015 Spaulding, Dan
14457
UWAL
Datura stramonium L.
TROY000009232 Monroe 20 Sep 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
18223
TROY
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
TROY000031814 Lawrence 14 Nov 2009 J. Kevin England
2237
TROY
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134183 Etowah 10 Aug 1974 T. A. Atkinson
590
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134182 DeKalb 16 Jul 1969 H. A. Beaty
s.n.
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UNA00038588 s.d. Charles Mohr
s.n.
UNA
Datura stramonium L.
UNA00068602 Marion 13 Aug 2002 Brian R. Keener
2410
UNA
Datura stramonium L.
JSU134201 Morgan 5 Aug 1974 T. A. Atkinson
501
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134180 Colbert 17 Jul 1965 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134199 St. Clair 1 Nov 1984 S. P. Partain
s.n.
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UNA00048708 Tuscaloosa 4 Sep 1979 L. J. Davenport
1579
UNA
Datura stramonium L.
UWAL0036178 Madison 02 Jul 2013 Keener, Brian R.
8010
UWAL
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UNA00038591 Mobile _ Jul _ Charles Mohr
s.n.
UNA
Datura stramonium L.
TROY000009231 Dale 14 Oct 2000 Tiffany Pennington
1030
TROY
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134195 Marshall 3 Aug 1974 T. A. Atkinson
476
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134186 Etowah 5 Oct 1973 K. E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134194 Marshall 20 May 1974 R. David Whetstone
2772
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134179 Cherokee 27 Oct 1983 R. D. Whetstone
13821
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
TROY000028208 DeKalb 26 Oct 2008 Brian R. Keener
5006
TROY
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134192 Marshall 12 Jun 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2018
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134191 Lee 29 Jun 1973 Kenneth G. Johnson
070
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
SAMF0004536 Jefferson 28 Sep 2006 Davenport, L. J.
3604
SAMF
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UWAL0039205 Butler 08 Sep 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
28482
UWAL
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UWAL0034934 Blount 21 Sep 2014 Anderson, Kelly
0726
UWAL
Datura stramonium L.
JSU134176 Calhoun 3 Aug 1982 R. D. Whetstone
11826
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UWAL0004233 DeKalb 26 Oct 2008 Keener, Brian R.
5006
UWAL
Datura stramonium L.
JSU134190 Jefferson 15 Aug 1984 J. P. Barber
951
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134174 Blount 13 Oct 1984 C. F. Nixon
914
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
USAM000014718 Madison 05 Jul 1976 Price Crafts
s.n.
USAM
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UWAL0004235 Marengo 20 Jul 1984 Anderson, Keith
s.n.
UWAL
Datura stramonium L.
UNA00058899 Lawrence 15 Aug 2002 Robert R. Haynes
10300
UNA
Datura stramonium L.
JSU134175 Calhoun 3 Aug 1982 R. D. Whetstone
11826
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
TROY000029778 Jackson 26 Aug 2009 Terry Wayne Barger
352
TROY
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134188 Jackson 30 Aug 1997 J. M. Ballard
7480
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UWAL0031524 Morgan 30 May 2012 England, J. Kevin
3492
UWAL
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
USAM000014717 Mobile 05 May 1967 Michael G. Lelong
3130
USAM
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134185 Etowah 20 Oct 1983 R. D. Whetstone
13786
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134178 Cherokee 4 Nov 1983 R. D. Whetstone
13016
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UWAL0036940 Limestone 03 Nov 2017 England, J. Kevin
8650
UWAL
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
TROY000009230 Crenshaw 04 Jul 2000 Alvin R. Diamond
11767
TROY
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
JSU134197 Randolph 19 Aug 1986 C. F. Nixon
2821
JSU
Datura stramonium Linnaeus
UWAL0004234 Lawrence 14 Nov 2009 England, J. Kevin
2237
UWAL
Datura stramonium L.
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