Hepatica americana

Family:RANUNCULACEAE
Species:Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker Gawl.
Common Name:Round Lobed Liverleaf; Round Lobed Hepatica
Habitat:Rich rocky woods.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:**
Plant Notes:Round Lobed Liverleaf is a native perennial in the Buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). It can be found in all but the southernmost counties in Alabama. Round Lobed Liverleaf grows on rocks and steep slopes in hardwood forests. It is often associated with limestone or basic soils. Round Lobed Liverleaf is a perennial from a short horizontal or ascending rhizome. The leaves are 3-6 inches in height. The blade of the leaf is deeply divided into three equal lobes. The lobes are rounded at the apex. The petiole of the leaf has long white hairs on it. The leaves are green mottled with darker green and silver above and purple below. Flowers are produced singly on a hairy stalk. Each flower is subtended by three large green bracts. Each flower has 5-12 petal like sepals. The sepals vary in color from white, to blue, to pink. The fruit is a cluster of achenes. One of two species of Hepatica or Liverleaf found in Alabama, Round Lobed Liverleaf has been treated both as a species and as a variety. It was also once placed in the genus Anemone, but molecular and morphological studies have recently been trending that it belongs in the genus Hepatica. The common name comes from the doctrine of signatures, a philosophy that believed that plants were placed here for the use of man. Clues, such as the plants shape or color, indicated the use of the plant. Liverleaf leaves resemble a human liver in outline, and the purple-red color of the underside of the leaf further adds to this similarity. Thus the plant was once thought to be an effective treatment for liver disorders. Round Lobed Liverleaf is occasionally offered for sale by wildflower nurseries. It prefers a shaded location with moist, humus rich soil. Because of their small size, plants should be placed near paths to facilitate viewing them. They also make an excellent choice for a rock garden or planting in rock crevices or at the base of hardwood trees.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyRANUNCULACEAE - Buttercup/Crowfoot family
Genus Hepatica
Species Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker Gawl. - Round Lobed Liverleaf; Round Lobed Hepatica

Citation

Citation Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker Gawl., Bot. Reg. 5: t. 387. 1819.
Basionym: Hepatica triloba Chaix, var. americana de Candolle 1817.
Type: **

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Anemonoides americana Anemonoides americana (de Candolle) Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 8: 165. 1973.Hepatica triloba Chaix, var. americana de Candolle 1817. 
Hepatica americana var. maculata Hepatica americana (de Candolle) Ker Gawler, var. maculata Farwell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 11: 56. 1928. MICHIGAN: Wayne Co.: Near Wayne, 11 May 1927, Farwell 7893 (holotype: BLH).
Hepatica americana var. parviflora Hepatica americana (de Candolle) Ker Gawler, var. parviflora (Rafinesque) Farwell, Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 3: 97. 1924.Hepatica triloba Chaix, var. parviflora Rafinesque 1828. 
Hepatica hepatica var. parviflora Hepatica hepatica (Linnaeus) H. Karsten, var. parviflora (Rafinesque) Farwell, Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 17: 169. 1916.Hepatica triloba Chaix, var. parviflora Rafinesque 1828. 
Hepatica hepatica var. purpurea Hepatica hepatica (Linnaeus) H. Karsten, var. purpurea Farwell, Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 17: 169. 1916. MICHIGAN: Wayne Co.: Rochester, 16 Apr 1914, Farwell 3595 (lectotype: BLH). Lectotypified by McVaugh et al., Cranbrooko Inst. Sci. Bull. 34: 41. 1953.
Hepatica triloba var. americana Hepatica triloba Chaix, var. americana de Candolle, Syst. Nat. 1: 216. 1817.  
Hepatica triloba var. parviflora Hepatica triloba Chaix, var. parviflora Rafinesque, Med. Fl. 1: 239. 1828. KENTUCKY
Hepatica triloba var. obtusa Hepatica triloba Chaix, var. obtusa Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 391. 1814.  
Anemone americana Anenome americana (DC.) H. Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 33: 271. 1958.Hepatica triloba Chaix, var. americana de Candolle 1817. 
Hepatica hepatica    
Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa Hepatica nobilis Miller, var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark, Rhodora 62: 232. 1960.Hepatica triloba Chaix, var. obtusa Pursh 1814. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Bibb, Butler, Calhoun, Cherokee, Clarke, Clay, Cleburne, Colbert, Coosa, DeKalb, Etowah, Franklin, Henry, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, Marengo, Marshall, Monroe, Morgan, Pike, Randolph, Shelby, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Walker, Wilcox, Winston

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
JSU127935 Cherokee 10 Mar 1992 D. S. Bailey
6
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
TROY000044532 Shelby 20 Mar 2010 Daniel D. Spaulding
13220
TROY
Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker Gawl.
20890 Colbert 16 APR 1970 ANGEL, J. K.
S.N.
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
UWAL0035350 DeKalb 04 Apr 2015 Keener, Brian R.
8711
UWAL
Hepatica americana (A.P. de Candolle) Ker-Gawler
JSU127930 Calhoun 5 Mar 1968 Martha Stuart
s.n.
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
45808 Winston 17 APR 1971 WIDDER, E. J.
57
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU127959 Tuscaloosa 25 Feb 1984 R. D. Whetstone
s.n.
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
TROY000008118 Marengo 28 Mar 1980 Robert Kral
66729
TROY
Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm.
JSU127951 Randolph 19 Aug 1986 C. F. Nixon
2769
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
25930 Colbert 13 MAR 1965 KRAL, ROBERT
23318
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU127949 Marshall 8 Mar 1992 D. D. Spaulding
1142
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UNA00030441 Lee 17 Apr 1892 F. S. Earle
s.n.
UNA
Anemone americana (DC.) H. Hara
62981 Cleburne 24 AUG 1957 ADAMS, W. H.
AUA
HEPATICA NOBLIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
UWAL0003614 Lauderdale 13 Apr 1935 Spieth, Alda M.
s.n.
UWAL
Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark
JSU127953 Talladega 4 Mar 1993 L. Weninegar
28
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
58198 Tallapoosa 3 MAR 1998 TYLER, PATRICIA J.
TYLER178
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU127936 Clay 21 Mar 1981 R. D. Whetstone
10454
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU127955 Talladega 10 Mar 1983 C. F. Nixon
38
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
15501 Tallapoosa 18 MAR 1966 KOELLING, ALFRED C.
S.N.
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU127945 DeKalb 15 Apr 1967 G. Collier
s.n.
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UWAL0003612 Sumter 17 Apr 2010 Keener, Brian R.
5781
UWAL
Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark
JSU127944 Coosa 31 Mar 1983 R. D. Whetstone
12955
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
36030 Bibb 17 MAR 1979 BECKETT, SCOTT W.
90
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU127941 Cleburne 24 Mar 1967 Norman Harris
s.n.
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UWAL0010821 Butler 04 Mar 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
22814
UWAL
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
48621 Henry 26 MAR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4301
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU127932 Calhoun 8 Mar 1955 John E. Butler
s.n.
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU127950 Randolph 21 Mar 1987 C. F. Nixon
3281
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
46341 Clay 25 MAR 1978 LAMB, TRIP
11
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU127934 Cherokee 26 Mar 1992 J. M. Ballard
6
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
TROY000037761 Butler 17 Mar 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
23812
TROY
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU127943 Colbert 11 Apr 1978 R. Kral
61452
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
58728 Cleburne 25 APR 1981 CAUSEY, ANN S.
2124
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU145241 Cleburne 06 Feb 1993 F. Hutchinson
1248
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU127954 Talladega 1 Mar 1984 R. D. Whetstone
s.n.
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
45807 Clay 4 APR 1971 DONOVAN, LOIS A.
69
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
UNA00065364 Winston 4 Mar 2005 Kevin England
267
UNA
Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker-Gawl.
JSU127942 Cleburne 24 Feb 1996 C. P. Rogers
006
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UWAL0009991 Shelby 20 Mar 2010 Spaulding, Dan
13220
UWAL
Anemone americna (DC.) Hara
UNA00030436 Tuscaloosa _-_-1874 Eugene A. Smith
s.n.
UNA
Anemone americana (DC.) H. Hara
UWAL0011701 Jefferson 31 Mar 2013 Keener, Brian R.
7719
UWAL
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU127931 Calhoun 14 Mar 1995 S. E. Hruska
90
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
USAM000013395 Monroe 10 Apr 1970 B. Eugene Woffard
10410
USAM
Hepatica americana (de Candolle) Ker Gawler
JSU127946 Etowah 9 Apr 1994 L. M. Hodge
1127
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
TROY000036460 Clarke 02 Mar 2012 Brian R. Keener
6882
TROY
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU127960 Walker 18 Apr 1979 R. D. Whetstone
10551
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UWAL0034942 Wilcox 05 Apr 2013 Webb, Wayne K.
s.n.
UWAL
Anemone americana (DC.) Hara
JSU127958 Talladega 10 Mar 1983 C. F. Nixon
38
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
37388 Monroe 29 APR 1981 HENDERSON, T.
18
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
UNA00023870 Lawrence 26 Jun 1989 Dennis Harding
s.n.
UNA
Anemone americana (DC.) H. Hara
UWAL0003611 Morgan 04 Apr 2009 England, J. Kevin
1862
UWAL
Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark
UWAL0003615 Talladega 01 Mar 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4043
UWAL
Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark
JSU127947 Lauderdale 8 Apr 1978 R. Kral
61356
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
48529 Pike 15 MAR 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4221
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU146152 Cleburne 30 Mar 1994 F. Hutchinson
2207
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UNA00030437 Lauderdale 2 Apr 1965 Joab L. Thomas
752
UNA
Anemone americana (DC.) H. Hara
UWAL0003616 Tuscaloosa 19 Mar 2008 Keener, Brian R.
4065
UWAL
Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark
UWAL0019043 Franklin 14 Apr 1998 Kral, R.
87289
UWAL
Anemone americana (DC) Hara
JSU127956 Talladega 1 Mar 1984 C. F. Nixon
545
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
TROY000027525 Talladega 01 Mar 2008 Brian R. Keener
4043
TROY
Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm.
UWAL0034646 Cleburne 23 Apr 1990 Kral, R.
77360
UWAL
Heptica americana (DC) Ker
JSU127938 Clay 2 Apr 1993 J. M. Ballard
1291
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UNA00068759 Talladega 1 Mar 2008 Brian R. Keener
4043
UNA
Hepatica nobilis P. Mill. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark
JSU127940 Cleburne 4 Mar 1973 R. David Whetstone
RDW-209
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
20891 Lauderdale 26 MAR 1970 BLACK, BRYAN W.
S.N.
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU127939 Cleburne 24 Mar 1967 Pat Prater
s.n.
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UWAL0010390 Clarke 02 Mar 2012 Keener, Brian R.
6882
UWAL
Anemone americana (DC.) Hara
44067 DeKalb 4 JUL 1986 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
2606
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU127933 Calhoun 4 Mar 1970 K. E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU127952 Randolph 26 Jun 1986 C. F. Nixon
2287
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UWAL0003617 Marengo 28 Mar 1980 Kral, R.
66729
UWAL
Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyermark
JSU127937 Clay 3 Mar 1993 J. M. Ballard
1149
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU127948 Limestone 1 Mar 1997 T. L. Hofmann
00230
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
TROY000028643 Tuscaloosa 19 Mar 2008 Brian R. Keener
4065
TROY
Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm.
JSU127929 Calhoun 25 Apr 1969 R. Kral
34447
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
43526 Wilcox 1 MAR 1986 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
2070
AUA
HEPATICA NOBILIS (L.) SCHREB. var. OBTUSA (PURSH) STEYERMARK
JSU144457 Cleburne 06 Feb 1993 F. Hutchinson
1253
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU127957 Talladega 1 Mar 1984 R. D. Whetstone
s.n.
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
JSU140407 Cleburne 24 Mar 1967 Elaine Reynolds
12-101
JSU
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
UNA00030461 Tuscaloosa 24 Feb 1959 Nelda Kathleen Williamson
s.n.
UNA
Anemone americana (DC.) H. Hara
UNA00030446 Calhoun 1 Feb 1953 C. G. Hollis
s.n.
UNA
Anemone americana (DC.) H. Hara
UWAL0033577 Cleburne 03 Apr 2010 England, J. Kevin
2304
UWAL
Anemone americana (A.P. de Candolle) Hara
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