Polygala polygama

Family:POLYGALACEAE
Species:Polygala polygama Walter
Common Name:Racemed Milkwort; Southern Bitter Milkwort
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Biennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:POPO
Plant Notes:Racemed Milkwort is a native herbaceous perennial in the Milkwort family (Polygalaceae). It occurs throughout most of Alabama, but is most common in the eastern half of the state. Racemed Milkwort occurs in open woodlands, in sandhills, and on roadsides. It is a perennial with a tap root. Several erect stems up to 1 foot in height are produced from each root crown. The stems are green in color, angled, unbranched, and glabrous. Leaves are alternate, sessile, oblong to lanceolate or elliptic in outline, entire, and glabrous. Each leaf has a single prominent vein. Flowers are produced in terminal racemes. Individual flowers consist of 3 petals and 5 sepals. They are rose, pink, or purple in color. Two of the sepals are large, purple in color, and petal like. They form “wings”. The three petals form a fringed tubular structure around the stamens. These flowers are cross pollinated by small bees. Cleistogamous flowers are produced underground at the base of the plant. The cleistogamous flowers are white and bud shaped. They never open and are self-pollinated. The fruit is a capsule with two black, pubescent seed.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACU (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyPOLYGALACEAE - Milkwort family
Genus Polygala
Species Polygala polygama Walter - Racemed Milkwort; Southern Bitter Milkwort

Citation

Citation POLYGALA POLYGAMA Walter, Fl. Carol. 179. 1788.
Basionym: **
Type: SOUTH CAROLINA: Richland Co.: Columbia, 19 May 1934, Palmer 42407 (neotype: GH). Neotypified by D. B. Ward, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 2: 482. 2008.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Anthallogea polygama Anthallogea polygama (Walter) Rafinesque ex Nieuwland, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 180. 1914.Polygala polygama Walter 1788. 
Polygala aborigina Polygala aborigina Small, Torreya 26: 92. 1926. FLORIDA: Volusia Co.: Turtle Mound, 24 May 1926, Small et al. s.n. (holotype: NY; isotypes: NY 2 shts).
Polygala polygama var. abortiva Polygala polygama Walter, var. abortiva Chodat, Mém. Soc. Phys. Gèneve 31(2(2)): 280. 1893.  
Polygala polygama var. macrospora Polygala polygama Walter, var. macrospora Chodat, Mém. Soc. Phys. Gèneve 31(2(2)): 280. 1893.  
Polygala polygama var. obtusata Polygala polygama Walter, var. obtusata Chodat, Mém. Soc. Phys. Gèneve 31(2(2)): 280. 1893.  
Polygala polygama var. ramulosa Polygala polygama Walter, var. ramulosa Farwell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 11: 63. 1928. MICHIGAN: St. Clair Co.: Algonac, 10 Aug 1927, Farwell 8068 (lectotype: BLH; isolectotype: MICH). Lectotypified by McVaugh et al., Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull. 34: 57. 1953.
Polygala rubella Polygala rubella Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 875. 1803. PENNSYLVANIA
Polygala rugosa Polygala rugosa Rafinesque, New Fl. 4: 89. 1838 ("1836").  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, Cherokee, Chilton, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Cullman, Dale, Dallas, DeKalb, Elmore, Escambia, Henry, Houston, Lee, Marshall, Mobile, Pike, Russell, St. Clair, Sumter, Tallapoosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1897 - 1997

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000022591 Dale 08 May 2005 Robert Kral
96257
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
UNA00009871 Marshall 02 Jun 1979 John H. Wiersema
723
UNA
Polygala polygama Walt.
AUA_ACC003212 Lee 21 MAY 1949 CUNNINGHAM, HUGH B.
S.N.
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
JSU138935 Clay 24 May 1973 R. David Whetstone
RDW-1334
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0013632 Coosa 12 Jun 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24197
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000007907 Escambia 21 May 1995 Cynthia L. Brittain
256
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0005802 Coosa 01 May 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5227
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walt.
UNA00016799 Mobile 27 Apr 1968 Joab L. Thomas
1656
UNA
Polygala polygama Walt. var. ramulosa Farw.
AUA_ACC049615 Pike 15 MAY 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4777
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
USAM000012947 Mobile 23 Mar 1974 Michael G. LeLong
7443
USAM
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000007910 Pike 05 May 1999 Brian H. Martin
120
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000007902 Butler 06 May 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
17516
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC035274 Covington 4 MAY 1979 CRAWFORD, LLOYD C.
S.N.
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
JSU138937 Cullman 23 May 1974 R. David Whetstone
2826
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0005801 Blount 16 May 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5325
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walt.
JSU138933 Cherokee 05 May 1994 J. M. Ballard
4051
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
UNA00009866 Mobile _ May _ Charles Mohr
s.n.
UNA
Polygala polygama Walt.
AUA_ACC003215 Lee 27 MAY 1953 COLEMAN, EUGENE
S.N.
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000037721 Coosa 20 May 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
24071
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000037905 Houston 30 Apr 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
23980
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC044116 Conecuh 10 MAY 1986 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
2479
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
JSU138941 Marshall 19 May 1992 D. D. Spaulding
1706
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000007908 Pike 09 May 1995 Patti L. Fries
8
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
JSU138936 Clay 24 May 1973 R. David Whetstone
RDW-1334
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0016483 Pike 13 May 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25095
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walter
UNA00009867 Lee 16 May 1897 Baker
s.n.
UNA
Polygala polygama Walt.
AUA_ACC012783 Chambers 8 MAY 1967 GOLDEN, MICHAEL S.
91
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
JSU138932 Cherokee 19 Jun 1986 R. D. Whetstone
15145
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC049100 Coffee 6 MAY 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4666
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
USAM000012948 Mobile 23 Mar 1974 Michael G. LeLong
7452
USAM
Polygala polygama Walter
JSU138934 Cherokee 28 May 1968 Jerry A. Clonts
136
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC003219 Lee 3 MAY 1950 DAVIS, JAMES R.
S.N.
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
AUA_ACC021904 Tallapoosa 23 MAY 1970 HOCKING, GEORGE M.
S.N.
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000007905 Dale 26 May 2000 Tiffany Pennington
646
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
JSU138939 DeKalb 15 Jan 1975 S. D. Durham
183
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC061604 Russell 2002 GIL, GLENDA
2001-157
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000042017 Houston 07 May 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26291
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC023997 Chilton 20 MAY 1971 FREEMAN, JOHN D.
707
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000007904 Dale 16 May 1997 Hannelore Rundell
184
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000032284 Blount 16 May 2009 Brian R. Keener
5325
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000007906 Crenshaw 17 May 2002 Alvin R. Diamond
13233
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC045394 Tallapoosa 14 MAY 1979 ATCHLEY, CECIL G.
141
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000007858 Dale 30 May 1999 Brian F. Prazinko
s.n.
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000037806 Autauga 21 Apr 2012 Brian R. Keener
7162
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0005803 Crenshaw 26 May 2008 Diamond, A.R.
19332
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walt.
TROY000042481 Conecuh 13 May 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26339
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
SAMF0000978 Mobile 09 Apr 2005 Davenport, L. J.
3160
SAMF
Polygala polygama Walter
UNA00053786 Blount 13 May 1997 Brian R. Keener
132
UNA
Polygala polygama Walt.
AUA_ACC052221 Dale 3 MAY 1992 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
8224
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
AUA_ACC003213 Lee 22 MAY 1951 MAJORS, EDWARD
S.N.
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000039386 Elmore 18 May 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25112
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC005286 Chambers 20 MAY 1967 LANE, RONNIE
S.N.
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
JSU138931 Cherokee 28 May 1968 K. E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
UNA00009872 Autauga 31 May 1980 Russell A. Meigs
715
UNA
Polygala polygama Walt. var. ramulosa Farw.
JSU138938 DeKalb 27 May 1974 T. A. Atkinson
248
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000037512 Coosa 12 Jun 2013 Alvin R. Diamond
24197
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC003218 Bullock 8 MAY 1949 ORR, WILLIAM P.
S.N.
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000007911 Pike Jason W Johnson
5
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0010782 Butler 29 Apr 2012 Diamond, Alvin R.
22992
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC049975 Pike 24 MAY 1988 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
4851
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
JSU138942 St. Clair 12 May 1983 R. D. Whetstone
13162
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
JSU138929 Blount 22 May 1972 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000022239 Cherokee 31 May 1968 Kenneth E. Landers
s.n.
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000033389 Coosa 01 May 2009 Brian R. Keener
5227
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000039421 Elmore 12 Jun 2014 Alvin R. Diamond
25196
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC029472 Elmore 11 MAY 1976 RUTLAND, DAVID W.
2569
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000007909 Pike 06 May 1996 Jeanese Holmes
175
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0013716 Houston 30 Apr 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
23980
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0009266 Sumter 26 May 2010 Keener, Brian R.
6040
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walt.
JSU146088 Cleburne 21 May 1992 F. Hutchinson
335
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0016282 Elmore 18 May 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25112
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walter
JSU138930 Calhoun 20 Jun 1969 Janis Brooks
s.n.
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC044974 Conecuh 11 JUN 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
812
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000007866 Pike 05 Apr 1995 Tameka Herring
3
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
JSU138940 Houston 08 May 1976 R. Kral
57965
JSU
Polygala polygama Walter
UWAL0010619 Autauga 21 Apr 2012 Keener, Brian R.
7162
UWAL
Polygala polygama Walt.
TROY000022590 Covington 31 May 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19355
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
AUA_ACC019417 Henry 25 MAY 1971 MOORE, HAROLD D.
1172
AUA
POLYGALA POLYGAMA WALTER
TROY000032285 Dallas 13 May 2009 Brian R. Keener
5286
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
TROY000007903 Coffee 09 Jun 2005 Alvin R. Diamond
15412
TROY
Polygala polygama Walter
USAM000012946 Mobile 24 Mar 1976 Michael G. LeLong
9043
USAM
Polygala polygama Walter
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