Monotropa uniflora

Family:ERICACEAE
Species:Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
Common Name:One Flower Indian Pipe; Corpse Plant; Ghost Plant
Habitat:Various dry to mesic forests.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:MOUN3
Plant Notes:Indian Pipe is a native achlorophyllous perennial herb in the Heath family (Ericaceae). It can be found throughout Alabama. Indian Pipe occurs in dry to mesic pine or mixed pine-hardwood forests, in scrub oak woods, in sandhills, and in Longleaf pine forests. Indian Pipe for most of the year exists as short, stubby roots surrounded by and connected to a mass of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. The fungal hyphae are in turn connected to the roots of conifers. The Indian Pipe obtains sugars produced by photosynthesis in the conifer by way of these fungal connections. So Indian Pipe is a parasite, indirectly parasitizing the conifer by way of the fungal connection. In late summer or autumn 1 to several white or pinkish stems emerge from the soil. These stems are from 1-8 inches in height. The stems are glabrous and have sessile, clasping, rounded scale-like leaves along their length. There is a solitary terminal flower. The flowers are nodding with 5 sepals and 5 petals. The flowers are white or pinkish in color and VERY fragrant. The fruit is a capsule. After pollination, the stem straightens so that the capsule is held erect. The small seed have membranous wings. Indian Pipe is easily damaged. Damaged portions of the plant become black in color. Indian Pipe was the favorite wildflower of poet Emily Dickinson. In 1879 she wrote “'Tis whiter than an Indian Pipe –'Tis dimmer than a Lace –No stature has it, like a Fog when you approach the place –Not any voice imply it here –Or intimate it there –A spirit – how doth it accost-What function hath the Air? This limitless Hyperbole each one of us shall be –'Tis Drama – if Hypothesis it be not Tragedy –!”—A. Diamond.
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native, FACU- (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyERICACEAE - Heath family
Genus Monotropa
Species Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus - One Flower Indian Pipe; Corpse Plant; Ghost Plant

Citation

Citation MONOTROPA UNIFLORA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 387. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: VIRGINIA: Without data, Kalm s.n. (lectotype: LINN 551.3). Lectotypified by Reveal, Huntia 7: 228. 1987.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Hypopitys uniflora Hypopitys uniflora (Linnaeus) Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 2: 476. 1766.Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus 1753. 
Monotropa coccinea Monotropa coccinea Zuccarini, Flora 15(2, Beibl.): 100. 1832. MEXICO: Without data, Karwinsky s.n. (holotype: M
Monotropa coccinea var. mexicana Monotropa coccinea Zuccarini, var. mexicana Lange, Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kjoebenhavn 7: 119. 1866, nom. inadmiss.Monotropa coccinea Zuccarini 1832. 
Monotropa coccinea var. nicaraguensis Monotropa coccinea Zuccarini, var. nicaraguensis Lange, Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kjoebenhavn 7: 119. 1866.NICARAGUA: Without data, Oersted s.n. (holotype: C). 
Monotropa humilis Monotropa humilis D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 151. 1   NEPAL
Monotropa morisoniana Monotropa morisoniana Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 266. 1803.  
Monotropa morisonii Monotropa morisonii Persoon, Syn. Pl. 1: 469. 1805, nom. illegit.Monotropa morisoniana Michaux 1803. 
Monotropa uniflora var. australis Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus, var. australis Domin, Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag, Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1915: 6. 1915.  
Monotropa uniflora var. coccinea Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus, var. coccinea (Zuccarini) Domin, Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag, Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1915: 5. 1915.Monotropa coccinea Zuccarini 1832.  
Monotropa uniflora var. typica Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus, var. typica Domin, Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Parg, Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1915: 4. 1915, nom. inadmis.Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus 1753. 
Monotropa brittonii Monotropa brittonii Small, J. New York Bot. Gard. 28: 7. 1927. FLORIDA: Palm Beach Co.: Near Pompano, 2 Dec 1919, Small et al. 9219 (lectotype: NY; isolectotype: NY). Lectotypified by Wilbur & Luteyn, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 102. 1978.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Cherokee, Clarke, Clay, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, DeKalb, Escambia, Etowah, Fayette, Geneva, Hale, Houston, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Macon, Mobile, Monroe, Morgan, Pike, St. Clair, Talladega, Tuscaloosa, Washington

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, JSU, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1949 - 1989

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
UWAL0005180 St. Clair 11 Oct 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5639
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora L.
TROY000007151 Dale 23 Feb 1999 Rundell, Hannelore
683
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
AUA000042780 Covington 31 Oct 2011 Pancake, Jr., Dale C.
S.N.
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_59456 Crenshaw 5 Nov 1998 Diamond, Alvin R.
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
TROY000029369 Coffee 29 Sep 2009 Diamond, Alvin R.
20974
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UWAL0046712 Autauga 18 Jan 2019 Parker, Matthew R.
1867
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
JSU121714 Houston 25 Sep 1994 MacDonald, John R.
7789
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
JSU121706 Calhoun 6 Feb 1992 Hutchinson, Francine
105
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
AUA000030091 Morgan 6 Sep 2015 England, J. Kevin
5690
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
UWAL0051264 Clay 28 May 1970 Dean, Blanche E.
269
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora
AUA_ACC_44749 Lawrence 10 Oct 1975 Duke, J.F.
062
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
TROY000047529 Autauga 04 Nov 2018 Diamond, Alvin R.
28622
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
TROY000030912 Lee 03 Oct 1953 Davis, Donald E.
s.n.
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_50956 Bullock 4 Mar 1990 Diamond, Alvin R.
6676
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
TROY000033928 Houston 24 Oct 2011 Counts, Kayla
71
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UWAL0001734 Butler 07 Nov 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21693
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora L.
ALNHS00001744 Dallas 06 Feb 2013 Barger, T. Wayne
OC-229
ALNHS
Monotropa uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_57371 Pike 23 Oct 1996 Diamond, Alvin R.
10638
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
JSU121709 Cherokee 5 Oct 1968 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
TROY000042196 Pike 24 Oct 2011 Senn, Whitney
95
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UWAL0019295 Pike 28 Oct 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25640
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_23077 Lee 30 Oct 1971 Harper, Douglas
142
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_51153 Covington 4 Oct 1989 Diamond, Alvin R.
6577
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
TROY000041907 Pike 28 Oct 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25640
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UWAL0038374 Clarke 12 Oct 2018 Boone, Meaghan C.
133
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora Linneaus
JSU121705 Calhoun 7 Oct 1994 Ballard, J. Mark
7310
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_53573 Jackson 20 Sep 1991 Gunn, Scott C.
2108
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
TROY000046485 Crenshaw 23 Nov 2017 Diamond, Alvin R.
28011
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
JSU121713 Etowah 2 Oct 1994 Hodge, Lesley M.
3986
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
JSU121708 Calhoun 16 Oct 1973 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
ALNHS00000134 Houston 25 Sep 1994 MacDonald, J.R.
7789
ALNHS
Monotropa uniflora L.
JSU121718 Talladega 12 Oct 1969 Green, Mark
s.n.
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
JSU121712 DeKalb 3 Aug 1976 Whetstone, R. David
8806
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UNA00013916 Tuscaloosa 08 Nov 1980 Williams, John S.
230
UNA
Monotropa uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_50130 Pike 17 Oct 1989 Diamond, Alvin R.
6542
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
UNA00013918 Lee 7 Sep 1980 Latham, B.
14
UNA
Monotropa uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_58462 Fayette 11 Oct 1992 Freeman, John D.
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
TROY000048880 Autauga 05 Nov 2018 Parker, Matthew R.
1867
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
ALNHS00002478 Colbert 19 Nov 2013 Barger, T. Wayne
FH-222
ALNHS
Monotropa uniflora L.
JSU140928 Cherokee 05 Oct 1968 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_63660 Bibb 27 Oct 2003 Moffett, Jr., J.Mincy
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
UNA00013914 Lawrence 29 Aug 1949 Segars, Charles B.
146
UNA
Monotropa uniflora L.
JSU121710 Clay 28 Sep 1994 Ballard, J. Mark
5077
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UNA00034346 Baldwin 27 Nov 1987 Burckhalter, Robert
1305
UNA
Monotropa uniflora L.
TROY000004384 Geneva 26 Oct 2002 Peters, Aaron
7
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UWAL0044220 Baldwin 26 Oct 2001 McArthur, Jill D.
870
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_3702 Lee 30 Oct 1952 Cunningham, Hugh B.
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
JSU121715 Lawrence 17 Sep 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
6380
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UNA00014621 Mobile s.d. Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Monotropa uniflora L.
JSU121707 Calhoun 16 Oct 1973 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UNA00013915 Hale 08 Oct 1965 Williams, Norris H.
154
UNA
Monotropa uniflora L.
USAM000008612 Mobile 19 Oct 1976 LeLong, Michel G.
9628
USAM
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
JSU121711 DeKalb 1 Oct 1994 Spaulding, Daniel D.
6631
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UNA00021877 Tuscaloosa 22 Oct 1989 Burckhalter, Robert
1740
UNA
Monotropa uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_52722 Conecuh 14 Nov 1993 Diamond, Alvin R.
8983
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
UNA00013917 Tuscaloosa s.d. Smith, Eugene A.
s.n.
UNA
Monotropa uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_3701 Lee 3 Oct 1953 Davis, Donald E.
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
TROY000007150 Crenshaw 05 Nov 1998 Diamond, Alvin R.
s.n.
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
ALNHS00002529 Monroe 17 Sep 2013 Barger, T. Wayne
RH-109
ALNHS
Monotropa uniflora L.
USAM000008611 Mobile 09 Jul 1976 LeLong, Michel G.
9273
USAM
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
TROY000007149 Covington 27 Oct 2001 Sasser, Telenna
s.n.
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UWAL0038377 Washington 18 Oct 2018 Younge, Kaleigh M.
2
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora Linneaus
UWAL0005179 Lawrence 24 Jun 2005 England, J. Kevin
423
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora L.
UWAL0030494 Morgan 06 Sep 2015 England, J. Kevin
5690
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
TROY000033295 St. Clair 11 Oct 2009 Keener, Brian R.
5639
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UWAL0043401 Baldwin 26 Oct 2001 Larsen, Harry S.
760
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora L.
JSU121717 Monroe 1 Nov 1997 Whetstone, R. David
19053
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
JSU121716 Lee 6 Nov 1973 Katzer, G.A.
00214
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
UWAL0039590 Crenshaw 23 Nov 2017 Diamond, Alvin R.
28011
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora L.
UWAL0030524 Covington 14 Nov 1986 Kral, Robert
73694
UWAL
Monotropa uniflora L.
JSU143585 Calhoun 16 Oct 1973 Landers, Kenneth E.
s.n.
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
ALNHS00002351 Lauderdale 07 Oct 2013 Peters, Ashley M.
SC-459
ALNHS
Monotropa uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_50926 Escambia 8 Oct 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8478
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
JSU121719 Talladega 12 Oct 1969 Green, Mark
s.n.
JSU
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
TROY000031951 Butler 07 Nov 2010 Diamond, Alvin R.
21693
TROY
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
AUA_ACC_44750 Macon 15 Oct 1975 Willis, Stephen F.
118
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
UNA00013919 Lee 8 Nov 1973 Stevens, A.
220
UNA
Monotropa uniflora L.
AUA_ACC_3703 Lee Nov 1920 Anonymous
AUA
Monotropa Uniflora L.
USAM000008613 Mobile 22 Nov 1968 LeLong, Michel G.
4998B
USAM
Monotropa uniflora Linnaeus
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