Perilla frutescens

Family:LAMIACEAE
Species:Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
Common Name:Beefsteak Plant; Wild Basil
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Annual
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:PEFR4
Plant Notes:Beefsteak Plant is an introduced annual species in the Mint Family (Lamiaceae). It is native to Asia where it is widely cultivated both as an ornamental and as a food and medicinal plant. In Alabama, it occurs throughout the state. Beefsteak Plant occurs as a weed in gardens and flower beds, in pastures, in disturbed woodlands, around old home sites, and along rivers and creeks. It is an annual with a tap root. It has square stems up to 3 feet in height. The stems are pubescent and often tinted purple. Leaves are opposite, petiolate, ovate-cordate in outline, with serrate margins. The foliage may be green, purple, or reddish. The surface of the leaves are wrinkled. The stems and leaves have a faint musty odor when crushed. The main stem and branches terminate in spike-like racemes of flowers. The two-lipped corolla is pale lavender to white, tubular, and barely exerted from the calyx. The calyx is pubescent with long straight hairs. The fruit is a pair of wrinkled nutlets that develop and mature within the persistent calyx. The dark purple or red leaf forms of Beefsteak Plant have been cultivated in Alabama, and are sometimes called “Wild Coleus”. Fresh leaves can be used in salads, soups and as garnishes. Beefsteak Plant is sometimes available through nurseries that sell herbs or ones that sell oriental vegetables. It is also available in commercial nurseries as a colorful summer annual. Plants are easily started from seed, and plants will abundantly re-seed themselves. It prefers full sun to partial shade and a moist sandy or organic rich soil.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyLAMIACEAE - Mint family
Genus Perilla
Species Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton - Beefsteak Plant; Wild Basil

Citation

Citation PERILLA FRUTESCENS (Linnaeus) Britton, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 5: 277. 1894.
Basionym: Ocimum frutescens Linnaeus 1753.
Type: SRI LANKA: Without data (lectotype: Burman, Thes. Zeylan. t. 80(1). 1737). Lectotypified by Paton, in C. E. Jarvis et al., Regnum Veg. 127: 74. 1993.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Melissa maxima Melissa maxima Arduino, Animadv. Bot. Spec. Alt. 28. 1764.  
Mentha perilloides Mentha perilloides Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 1767, nom. illegit.Ocimum frutescens Linnaeus 1753. 
Ocimum frutescens Ocimum frutescens Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 597. 1753. SRI LANKA: Without data (lectotype: Burman, Thes. Zeylan. t. 80(1). 1737). Lectotypified by Paton, in C. E. Jarvis et al., Regnum Veg. 127: 74. 1993.
Perilla albiflora Perilla albiflora Odashima, J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 7: 84. 1935. TAIWAN
Perilla avium Perilla avium Dunn, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 161. 1913. CHINA
Perilla frutescens var. japonica Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton, var. japonica (Hasskarl) H. Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 1: 203. 1948.Perilla ocymoides Linnaeus, var. japonica Hasskarl 1856. 
Perilla ocymoides Perilla ocymoides Linnaeus, Gen. Pl., ed. 6. 578. 1764, nom. illegit.Ocimum frutescens Linnaeus 1753. 
Perilla ocymoides var. japonica Perilla ocymoides Linnaeus, var. japonica Hasskarl, Retzia 2: 36. 1856. JAPAN
Perilla shimadae Perilla shimadae Kudo, J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 3: 225. 1931. TAIWAN
Perilla utricifolia Perilla utricifolia Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 80. 1796, nom. illegit.Ocimum frutescens Linnaeus 1753. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Blount, Butler, Calhoun, Cherokee, Choctaw, Clarke, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Cullman, Dallas, Elmore, Etowah, Geneva, Greene, Houston, Jackson, Jefferson, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, Madison, Marengo, Marion, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Pike, Shelby, St. Clair, Talladega, Tuscaloosa, Wilcox

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1893 - 2004

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000039906 Greene 28 Oct 2011 Brian R. Keener
6790
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC004120 Montgomery ANDREWS, ELIZABETH F.
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
JSU126521 Clay 30 Jul 1994 J. M. Ballard
4246
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000006539 Lee 27 Sep 2001 Curtis J. Hansen
68
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126532 Monroe 12 Sep 1997 R. D. Whetstone
18527
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC053108 Coffee 6 OCT 1989 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
6483
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
UNA00055920 Houston 08 Sep 1992 John R. MacDonald
5442
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
UNA00040345 Tuscaloosa 14 Sep 1985 Charles N. Horn
888
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
AUA_ACC072147a Marengo 12 JUL 2012 ENGLAND, J. KEVIN
3679
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
TROY000044790 Marengo 12 Jul 2012 J. Kevin England
3679
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC039127 Dallas 6 SEP 1982 GUNN, SCOTT C.
1152
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
JSU126536 Talladega 2 Sep 1983 R. D. Whetstone
13600
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC041797 Clarke 22 SEP 1973 BEDWELL, C. R.
0088
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
JSU126458 Choctaw 13 Sep 1997 J. W. Higginbotham
171
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0017002 Mobile 21 Sep 2013 Horne, Howard E.
2401
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton
JSU126533 Monroe 14 Oct 1982 R. D. Whetstone
12806
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0009719 Greene 28 Oct 2011 Keener, Brian R.
6790
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
TROY000042003 Houston 04 Jun 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26406
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126454 Calhoun 5 Oct 1986 C. L. Lawler
1347
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0013156 Cullman 10 Sep 2011 England, J. Kevin
3138
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126457 Cherokee 17 Oct 1992 D. D. Spaulding
3257
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126455 Calhoun 24 Aug 1982 R. D. Whetstone
12002
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC035286 Butler 12 SEP 1979 CRAWFORD, LLOYD C.
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
UNA00063557 Crenshaw 22 Aug 2004 Alvin R. Diamond
14632
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
AUA_ACC039141 Wilcox 9 SEP 1982 GUNN, SCOTT C.
1279
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
TROY000020885 Butler 04 Sep 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
19889
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126528 Jefferson 17 Oct 1975 R. D. Whetstone
6901
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0031482 Morgan 09 Sep 2012 England, J. Kevin
3922
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU139921 Shelby 11 Oct 1997 D. D. Spaulding
10184
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126535 St. Clair 12 Nov 1983 D. D. Beavers
s.n.
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0013474 Marengo 12 Jul 2012 England, J. Kevin
3679
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126530 Marshall 4 Sep 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2809
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126523 Cleburne 11 Sep 1982 Melanie G. Bussey
303
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000020925 Montgomery 14 Sep 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
20015
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0033339 Lawrence 17 Sep 2016 England, J. Kevin
6849
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC064303 Crenshaw 22 AUG 2004 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
14632
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
JSU126459 Choctaw 1 Nov 1997 R. D. Whetstone
19031
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC065326 Jefferson 29 SEP 2005 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
15838
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
UNA00056186 Geneva 05 Oct 1998 John R. MacDonald
12172
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
AUA_ACC040429 Clarke 4 SEP 1970 KRAL, ROBERT
41065
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
UNA00060150 Mobile 28 Sep 1893 Charles Mohr
s.n.
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
SAMF0004842 Jefferson 14 Sep 2006 Davenport, L. J.
3572
SAMF
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000006537 Conecuh 24 Aug 2002 Alvin R. Diamond
13637
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126527 Jefferson 23 Sep 1984 M. G. Bussey
994
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0019927 Morgan 20 Sep 2015 England, J. Kevin
5746
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126534 St. Clair 3 Sep 1982 R. D. Whetstone
12106
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000042883 Houston 13 Aug 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26709
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
SAMF0004843 Jefferson 28 Sep 2006 Davenport, L. J.
3602
SAMF
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UNA00040344 Dallas 06 Sep 1982 S. C. Gunn
1152
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
AUA_ACC051105 Pike 29 AUG 1990 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
7088
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
AUA_ACC038057 Limestone 13 OCT 1969 KRAL, ROBERT
37863
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
UNA00061015 Lee 27 Sep 2001 C. J. Hansen
2001-68
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
TROY000029781 Jackson 26 Aug 2009 Terry Wayne Barger
350
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC044043 Conecuh 16 SEP 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
TROY000033522 Barbour 03 Sep 2011 Derek Morrison
57
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA000030247 Lee 9 Sep 2014 BARGER, T. WAYNE
CSP-45
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS
JSU126526 Jefferson 5 Oct 1984 J. P. Barber
1135
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000006542 Pike 15 Sep 1999 James A. Hall
14
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126460 Clarke 13 Sep 1997 R. D. Whetstone
18810
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0006567 Monroe 17 Sep 2007 Diamond, A.R.
18192
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
JSU126529 Madison 22 Sep 1995 S. J. Threlkeld
91
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UNA00060555 Tuscaloosa 05 Oct 1980 David L. Lentz
148
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
USAM000007796 Mobile 26 Oct 1969 Michael G. LeLong
3904.2
USAM
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126525 Jackson 11 Sep 1994 D. D. Spaulding
6286
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0034114 Marion 06 Sep 2015 Spaulding, Dan
14424
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
JSU126453 Bibb 25 Sep 1982 R. D. Whetstone
12541
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000006538 Crenshaw 22 Aug 2004 Alvin R. Diamond
14632
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126522 Etowah 3 Sep 1994 L. M. Hodge
3478
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000006540 Monroe 04 Oct 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
18451
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000048625 Autauga 24 Aug 2018 Matthew R. Parker
1758
TROY
Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) Bartram
SAMF0004841 Jefferson 09 Sep 2003 Davenport, L. J.
2951
SAMF
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC040720 Monroe 1 SEP 1970 KRAL, ROBERT
40941
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
UNA00054002 Blount 06 Sep 1997 Brian R. Keener
389
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
TROY000029604 Baldwin 09 Sep 2009 Terry Wayne Barger
641
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
UWAL0032122 Houston 13 Aug 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26709
UWAL
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000020937 Jefferson 29 Sep 2005 Alvin R. Diamond
15838
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
JSU126524 Jackson 18 Sep 1998 K. R. Brodeur
1409
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC059943 Lee 27 SEP 2001 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
2001-68
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
JSU126456 Calhoun 24 Aug 1982 R. D. Whetstone
12012
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000006541 Monroe 17 Sep 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
18192
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
TROY000020926 Geneva 08 Nov 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
18597
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
SAMF0004844 Tuscaloosa 04 Sep 1979 Davenport, L. J.
1569
SAMF
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA_ACC023084 Lee 21 OCT 1971 HUDSON, MARY
147
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
UNA00054502 Blount 26 Sep 1998 Brian R. Keener
1681
UNA
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
TROY000039520 Elmore 07 Jul 2011 Robert Pullen
28
TROY
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
AUA000038159 Morgan 20 Sep 2015 ENGLAND, J. KEVIN
5746
AUA
PERILLA FRUTESCENS (L.) BRITT.
JSU126531 Marshall 4 Sep 1992 D. D. Spaulding
2820
JSU
Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton
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