Ricinus communis

Family:EUPHORBIACEAE
Species:Ricinus communis Linnaeus
Common Name:Castor Bean; Castor Oil Plant; Palma Christi
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Shrub
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:RICO3
Plant Notes:Castor Bean is an introduced semi-woody, frost-tender perennial (annual in our area) in the Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). It is native to tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, India, and the Middle East, where it is an evergreen shrub or small tree reaching heights of 20-35 feet. Castor Bean has been widely cultivated as a fast growing warm-season shade plant, and for its seed which are the source of Castor Oil and the toxin ricin. Castor Bean can be found as an escape from cultivation throughout Alabama, though it is more common in the southern portion of the state. It occurs on roadsides, along fence rows, along railroads, in vacant lots, and around the edges of fields. Castor Bean is a fast growing species that reaches heights of 6-15 during a few months of growth. Small plants usually are unbranched and larger plants have a few branches giving them an open, rounded, canopy. The leaves are alternate, petiolate, peltate in outline, with 5-9 deep palmate lobes and serrate margins. Both stems and leaves are glabrous. The leaf teeth are gland tipped, and there are conspicuous glands on the petiole. The flowers are produced in a terminal thyrse. The staminate flowers are located towards the bottom and pistillate flowers are near the top. Flowers are greenish in color and lack petals. The male flowers have prominent creamy yellow stamens and the female flowers have bright red stigmas. The fruit is a muricate (covered in short bluntly pointed projections) capsule containing three seed. The seed are large, mottled brown and gray in color, bean-like in appearance, with a warty caruncle at their base. The caruncle is a type of elaiosome that promotes dispersal of the seed by ants. Castor Bean is readily available from many seed companies. In addition to the typical variety, there are several with red or bronze foliage. It should be planted directly in the garden after danger of frost has passed. All parts of the plant are toxic to humans, animals, and many insects.--A
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native, FACU (NWI)
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyEUPHORBIACEAE - Spurge family
Genus Ricinus
Species Ricinus communis Linnaeus - Castor Bean; Castor Oil Plant; Palma Christi

Citation

Citation RICINUS COMMUNIS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1007. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: Without data, Herb. Clifford 450(Ricinus 1) (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Seegeler, Oil Pl. Ethiopia 212. 1982.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Croton spinosus Croton spinosus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1005. 1753. INDIA
Ricinus africanus Ricinus africanus Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768.  
Ricinus africanus Ricinus africanus Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 4: 565. 1805, non Miller 1768. Cult. at Berlin, without data (holotype: B-W).
Ricinus americanus Ricinus americanus Miller, Gard. Dict., ed 8. 1768.  
Ricinus angulatus Ricinus angulatus Thunberg, Ricin. 6. 1815.  
Ricinus armatus Ricinus armatus Andrews, Bot. Repos. 6: t. 430. 1805.  
Ricinus badius Ricinus badius Reichenbach, Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 2: 21, t. 154. 1824.  
Ricinus chinensis Ricinus chinensis Thunberg, Ricin. 5. 1815. CHINA
Ricinus communis var. reichenbachianus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. reichenbachianus Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1019. 1866.  
Ricinus communis subsp. africanus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, subsp. africanus (Müller Argoviensis) Popova, Trudy Prikl. Bot. 47(Suppl.): 410, 541, f. 291-292. 1930.Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. africanus Müller Argoviensis 1866; Ricinus africanus Willdenow 1805, non Miller 1768. 
Ricinus communis subsp. mexicanus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, subsp. mexicanus Popova, Trudy Prikl. Bot. 47(Suppl.): 409, 541, f. 287-290. 1930. MEXICO
Ricinus communis subsp. sanguineus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, subsp. sanguineus (Groenland) Popova, Trudy Prikl. Bot. 47(Suppl.): 405, 541, f. 283-284. 1930.Ricinus sanguineus Groenland 1858. 
Ricinus communis subsp. zanzibarinus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, subsp. zanzibarinus Popova, Trudy Prikl. Bot. 47(Suppl.): 408, 541, f. 285-286. 1930.  
Ricinus communis var. africanus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. africanus (Willdenow) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1019. 1866.Ricinus africanus Willdenow 1805, non Miller 1768. 
Ricinus communis var. amblyocalyx Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. amblyocalyx Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1019. 1866.  
Ricinus communis var. armatus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. armatus (Andrews) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1018. 1866.Ricinus armatus Andrews 1805. 
Ricinus communis var. badius Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. badius (Reichenbach) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1019. 1866.Ricinus badius Reichenbach 1824. 
Ricinus communis var. benguelensis Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. benguelensis Müller Argoviensis, J. Bot. 2: 337. 1864. ANGOLA: Near Mocamedes, s.d., Welwitsch 307 (holotype: BM; isotypes: K, LISU).
Ricinus communis var. brasiliensis Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis, in Martius, Fl. Bras. 11(2): 421, t. 60. 1874. BRAZIL: Minas Gerais:
Ricinus communis var. genuinus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. genuinus Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1019. 1866, nom. inadmiss.Ricinus communis Linnaeus 1753. 
Ricinus communis var. leucocarpus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. leucocarpus (Bertoloni) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1018. 1866.Ricinus leucocarpus Bertoloni 1824. 
Ricinus communis var. lividus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. lividus (Jacquin) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1018. 1866.Ricinus lividus Jacquin 1781-1782. 
Ricinus communis var. megalospermus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. megalospermus (Delile) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1017. 1866.Ricinus megalospermus Delile 1826. 
Ricinus communis var. microcarpus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. microcarpus Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1020. 1866.  
Ricinus communis var. purpurascens Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. purpurascens (Bertoloni) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1018. 1866.Ricinus purpurascens Bertoloni 1851. 
Ricinus communis var. rheedianus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. rheedianus Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1020. 1866.INDIA 
Ricinus communis var. rugosus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. rugosus (Miller) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1018. 1866.Ricinus rugosus Miller 1768. 
Ricinus communis var. speciosus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. speciosus (Burman f.) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1021. 1866.Ricinus speciosus Burman f. 1768. 
Ricinus communis var. undulatus Ricinus communis Linnaeus, var. undulatus (Besser) Müller Argoviensis, in de Candolle, Prodr. 15(2): 1021. 1866.Ricinus undulatus Besser 1811. 
Ricinus digitatus Ricinus digitatus Noronha, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 5(4): 26. 1790.  
Ricinus europaeus Ricinus europaeus T. Nees von Esenbeck, Gen. Fl. Germ. t. 38. 1833.  
Ricinus glaucus Ricinus glaucus Hoffmannsegg, Verz. Pfl.-Kult., Nachtr. 2: 199. 1828.  
Ricinus hybridus Ricinus hybridus Besser, Cat. Hort. Cremeneci 13. 1816.  
Ricinus inermis Ricinus inermis Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768.  
Ricinus japonicus Ricinus japonicus Thunberg, Ricin. 4. 1815. JAPAN
Ricinus laevis Ricinus laevis de Candolle, Mém. Soc. Phys. Gèneve 1(2): 461. 1822.  
Ricinus leucocarpus Ricinus leucocarpus Bertoloni, Giorn. Arcadico Sci. 21: 192. 1824.  
Ricinus lividus Ricinus lividus Jacquin, Misc. Austriac. 2: 360. 1781-1782.  
Ricinus macrophyllus Ricinus macrophyllus Bertoloni, Giorn. Arcadico Sci. 21: 192. 1824.  
Ricinus medicus Ricinus medicus Forsskål, Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 164. 1775.  
Ricinus megalospermus Ricinus megalospermus Delile, Cent. Pl. Afr. Meroe 89. 1826. Cult. at Geneve, without data (neotype: G-DC). Neotypified by Radcliffe-Smith, in Polhill, Fl. Trop. E. AFr., Euphorbiaceae 1: 323. 1987.
Ricinus minor Ricinus minor Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768.  
Ricinus nanus Ricinus nanus Balbis, Cat. Pl., ed. 1813. 65. 1813.  
Ricinus peltatus Ricinus peltatus Noronha, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 5(4): 25. 1790.  
Ricinus purpurascens Ricinus purpurascens Bertoloni, Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna 2: 269. 1851.  
Ricinus rugosus Ricinus rugosus Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768.  
Ricinus sanguineus Ricinus sanguineus Groenland, Rev. Hort., ser. 4. 7: 601. 1858.  
Ricinus scaber Ricinus scaber Bertoloni ex Moris, Stirp. Sard. Elench. 1: 41. 1827.  
Ricinus speciosus Ricinus speciosus Burman f., Fl. Indica 207, t. 63(2). 1768. INDONESIA: Java:
Ricinus spectabilis Ricinus spectabilis Blume, Bijdr. 623. 1826.  
Ricinus tunisensis Ricinus tunisensis Desfontaines, Tabl. Ecole Bot., ed. 3. 340. 1829.  
Ricinus undulatus Ricinus undulatus Besser, Cat. Jard. Bot. Kuzemieniec 90. 1811.  
Ricinus urens Ricinus urens Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768.  
Ricinus viridis Ricinus viridis Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 4: 564. 1805. Cult. in Berlin, without data (holotype: B-W).
Ricinus vulgaris Ricinus vulgaris Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768.  

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Butler, Chambers, Coffee, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Dale, DeKalb, Geneva, Henry, Houston, Mobile, Pike, Russell, Winston

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, TROY, UNA, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
TROY000018911 Butler 11 Oct 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
18510
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
20367 Russell 29 JUL 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
398
AUA
RICINUS COMMUNIS L.
UNA00067270 Winston 29 Oct 2005 D. D. Spaulding
12356
UNA
Ricinus communis L.
TROY000019020 Chambers 14 Aug 1965 James L. Lasley
s.n.
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
TROY000004758 Houston 26 Dec 1998 John R. MacDonald
12472
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
UNA00056902 Houston 26 Dec 1998 John R. MacDonald
12472
UNA
Ricinus communis L.
TROY000004755 Coffee 27 Sep 2003 Stephanie Thomas
1
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
UWAL0007623 Winston 29 Oct 2005 Spaulding, Daniel D.
12356
UWAL
Ricinus communis L.
TROY000044848 Geneva 14 Sep 2017 Cameron Byrd
1530
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
TROY000004759 Pike 04 Nov 2003 Alvin R. Diamond
14260
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
60482 Crenshaw 27 AUG 1996 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
10504
AUA
RICINUS COMMUNIS L.
UWAL0007621 DeKalb 30 Oct 2007 Spaulding, Daniel D.
12796
UWAL
Ricinus communis L.
UWAL0016990 Mobile 17 Sep 2013 Horne, Howard E.
2394
UWAL
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
56447 Pike 10 NOV 1995 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
10102
AUA
RICINUS COMMUNIS L.
67285 Winston 29 OCT 2005 SPAULDING, DANIEL D.
12356
AUA
RICINUS COMMUNIS L.
TROY000029138 DeKalb 30 Oct 2007 Daniel D. Spaulding
12796
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
TROY000004756 Coffee 08 Sep 2002 Olivia Walters
1
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
UNA00062192 Pike 4 Nov 2003 Alvin R. Diamond
14260
UNA
Ricinus communis L.
TROY000019021 Winston 29 Oct 2005 Daniel D. Spaulding
12356
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
TROY000004757 Dale 17 Jul 2000 Tiffany Pennington
886
TROY
Ricinus communis Linnaeus
UWAL0007622 Winston 29 Oct 2005 Spaulding, Daniel D.
12356
UWAL
Ricinus communis L.
20423 Henry 29 JUL 1970 MOORE, HAROLD D.
472
AUA
RICINUS COMMUNIS L.
41564 Conecuh 15 SEP 1985 DIAMOND, JR., ALVIN R.
1812
AUA
RICINUS COMMUNIS L.
First Page Previous Page Next Page Last Page
Records per Page: