Tetragonotheca helianthoides

Family:ASTERACEAE
Species:Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
Common Name:Squarehead; Pineland Ginseng; Pineland Nerve Ray
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:TEHE2
Plant Notes:Pineland Ginseng is a native herbaceous perennial in the Sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is native to the southern half of Alabama. Pineland Ginseng occurs in dry pine or pine/hardwood forests, on roadside banks, in sand hills, and under powerline right-of-ways. It is a perennial with a thick taproot. Several stems up to 2 feet in height are usually produced from each crown. The stems are erect, green in color, and retrorsely villous. The leaves are opposite, sessile, rhombic to lanceolate in outline, and coarsely toothed. The leaves are dark green in color, pubescent, and gland dotted. Flowers are produced in heads. The heads are terminal on the stems or on short shoots from the axils of the upper leaves. The developing heads are enclosed in 4 large, foliaceous bracts, giving the species another of its common names—Square Heads. Individual heads have 6-14 yellow ray flowers that are 3-toothed at the apex. There are 25-150 greenish-yellow or reddish disc flowers. The fruit is an achene. Pineland Ginseng is not usually available in nurseries though it can be raised from seed. The large taproot makes it difficult to transplant, so plant seed in the autumn in the spot you want the mature plant to grow. Seedlings do not transplant well. Plants usually flower in the second or third year from seed. Plants prefer a sandy, well-draining soil and full sun. They are drought tolerant. Pineland Ginseng refers to the use of the root of this plant in the same fashion as American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius Linnaeus) which is absent or rare on most of the Coastal Plain.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyASTERACEAE - Aster family
Genus Tetragonotheca
Species Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus - Squarehead; Pineland Ginseng; Pineland Nerve Ray

Citation

Citation TETRAGONOTHECA HELIANTHOIDES Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 903. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: VIRGINIA: Without data, Clayton 97 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Reveal, in C. E. Jarvis et al., Regnum Veg. 127: 93. 1993.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Gonotheca helianthoides Gonotheca helianthoides (Linnaeus) Rafinesque, Med. Repos., ser. 2. 5: 352. 1808.Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus 1753. 
Polymnia tetragonotheca Polymnia tetragonotheca Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 576. 1767, nom. illegit.Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus 1753. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Bullock, Butler, Chambers, Chilton, Choctaw, Clarke, Coffee, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Dallas, Elmore, Escambia, Geneva, Hale, Henry, Houston, Lamar, Lee, Lowndes, Macon, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Sumter, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: ALNHS, AUA, BRIT, JSU, SAMF, TROY, UNA, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: 1967 - 2019

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
SAMF0005729 Bibb 18 May 2011 Davenport, Lawrence J.
4673
SAMF
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008473 Lowndes 16 May 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
609
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000046596 Autauga 02 May 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
703
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008471 Lee 10 May 1979 Keyser, J.T.
113
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00067052 Sumter 14 May 2007 Keener, Brian R.
3609
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000027053 Baldwin 15 May 2008 Barger, T. Wayne
PERD-366
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UWAL0012985 Crenshaw 17 May 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24036
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008461 Escambia 4 Jun 1972 Kral, Robert
47211
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
AUA000008468 Lee 3 May 1955 Alford, H.G.
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000039234 Montgomery 13 Jul 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25309
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
TROY000039325 Autauga 12 Jun 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25179
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
UWAL0012090 Dallas 15 Jun 2012 Keener, Brian R.
7314
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
USAM000002839 Mobile 04 May 1968 Scott, D.L.
168
USAM
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008478 Monroe 22 Apr 1981 O'Halloran, K.
082
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00058328 Butler 05 May 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13143
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
JSU124344 Clarke 24 Jun 1984 Whetstone, R. David
14319
JSU
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008476 Macon 17 May 1966 Searcy, James W.
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
ALNHS00005052 Elmore 19 MAY 2017 Barger, T. Wayne
YLW-139
ALNHS
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000025150 Escambia 19 Jun 2008 Hansen, Curtis J.
3310
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UWAL0043801 Baldwin 10 Apr 2001 Larsen, Harry S.
728
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
USAM000002845 Mobile 23 May 1968 LeLong, Michel G.
4641
USAM
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
UWAL0049311 Bullock 03 Jun 2017 Horne, Howard E.
3963
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008474 Macon 17 May 1979 Atchley, Cecil G.
147
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000002997 Lee 17 Jun 1978 Kral, Robert
62036
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
UNA00049658 Tuscaloosa 23 May 1974 Cunningham, Alan
s.n.
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
TROY000042843 Geneva 08 May 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26322
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
USAM000002843 Mobile 30 Apr 1968 Scott, D.L.
151
USAM
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
TROY000002993 Butler 05 May 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13143
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008453 Chilton 20 May 1971 Freeman, John D.
726
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UWAL0035462 Lamar 13 Jul 2017 England, J. Kevin
8194
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008452 Chilton 19 May 1972 Redmond, Bill
0054
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00068493 Escambia 19 Jun 2008 Hansen, Curtis J.
3310
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000039077 Baldwin 20 Jul 1927 Wolf, Wolfgang
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
AUA000008450 Butler 30 Apr 1967 Barrick, William E.
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000002998 Pike 22 May 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13214a
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008467 Lee 17 May 1969 Harmon, Crystal
116
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
AUA000008475 Macon 28 May 1970 Davidson, John
159
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00058856 Dale 14 May 1999 Kral, Robert
88460
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
UWAL0057207 Bibb 17 May 2019 Keener, Brian R.
1180
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
USAM000002840 Mobile 04 May 1968 Scott, D.L.
168
USAM
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008479 Monroe 22 Apr 1981 O'Halloran, K.
088
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00049656 Mobile 29 Apr 1967 Smith, Jerry
s.n.
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008458 Crenshaw 12 May 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8250
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UWAL0016461 Autauga 12 Jun 2014 Diamond, Alvin R.
25179
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000024949 Covington 20 May 2009 Hansen, Curtis J.
4042
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UWAL0043802 Baldwin 19 Jun 2002 Larsen, Harry S.
973
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
JSU124341 Autauga 30 May 1970 Kral, Robert
39363
JSU
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
UWAL0046676 Autauga 02 May 2017 Parker, Matthew R.
703
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008477 Macon 20 May 1965 Merritt, Wayne
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00049661 Tuscaloosa 23 May 1974 Milam, J.R.
38
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008465 Henry 20 May 1972 Cox, J.E.
147
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000042483 Geneva 08 May 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26322
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008482 Pike 20 May 1990 Diamond, Alvin R.
6910
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000016533 Sumter 14 May 2007 Keener, Brian R.
3609
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008484 Tallapoosa 23 May 1972 Freeman, John D.
791-A
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000037888 Crenshaw 17 May 2013 Diamond, Alvin R.
24036
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
USAM000002844 Mobile 20 Apr 1967 LeLong, Michel G.
3043
USAM
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008469 Lee 28 Apr 1951 Rush, Melvin W.
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00070436 Covington 20 May 2009 Hansen, Curtis J.
4042
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008464 Geneva 5 May 1990 Diamond, Alvin R.
6893
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000002996 Lee 13 Aug 1978 Kral, Robert
62510
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008462 Escambia 14 May 1966 Woodruff, John M.
20
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
AUA000008454 Clarke 11 May 1981 Henderson, T.
060
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UWAL0014095 Bullock 27 Jun 2012 Dykes, Bailee
944
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
UNA00049660 Tuscaloosa 05 Jun 1971 Kral, Robert
42886
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
USAM000002842 Mobile 04 May 1968 Scott, D.L.
162
USAM
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008466 Lee 28 May 1970 Murchison, Grover R.
200
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00058323 Crenshaw 05 May 2002 Diamond, Alvin R.
13133
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008460 Escambia 5 May 1999 Searcy, Darryl
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
ALNHS00001104 Baldwin 17 May 2012 Barger, T. Wayne
SP#470
ALNHS
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008455 Coffee 26 Apr 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8201
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UWAL0002801 Butler 24 Apr 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
21968
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
SAMF0005728 Coosa 03 Jul 2013 Davenport, Lawrence J.
5509
SAMF
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008459 Dale 9 Jun 1971 Kral, Robert
43168
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
AUA000008483 Tallapoosa Apr 1925 Anonymous
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000016532 Hale 13 May 2003 Diamond, Alvin R.
13903
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
TROY000033082 Covington 20 May 2009 Hansen, Curtis J.
4042
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
UWAL0052284 Bibb 16 Jun 2017 Keener, Brian R.
10198
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
USAM000002841 Mobile 30 Apr 1968 Scott, D.L.
151
USAM
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008472 Lee 15 Apr 1949 Turner, H.F.
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
AUA000008456 Conecuh 13 Jun 1985 Diamond, Alvin R.
842
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UWAL0019134 Choctaw 08 Jun 1996 Kral, Robert
85984
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008480 Montgomery 27 May 1963 Porterfield, Martha
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00049659 Lowndes 16 May 1982 Gunn, Scott C.
609
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008449 Autauga 10 Jul 1970 Moore, Harold D.
339
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
JSU124343 Chilton 6 Jun 1972 Kral, Robert
47316
JSU
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
BRIT67404 Barbour 20 May 1968 Kral, Robert
30901
BRIT
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008481 Pike 17 May 1992 Diamond, Alvin R.
8257
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
AUA000008470 Lee 7 May 1949 Cunningham, Hugh B.
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000038533 Bullock 27 Jun 2012 Dykes, Bailee
944
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008451 Chambers 20 May 1967 Golden, Michael
184
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000038567 Dallas 15 Jun 2012 Keener, Brian R.
7314
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008457 Covington 4 May 1979 Johnson, Kenneth G.
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
TROY000002994 Crenshaw 30 May 2000 Diamond, Alvin R.
11703
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
JSU124342 Baldwin 10 Jun 1997 Spaulding, Daniel D.
9930
JSU
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
UWAL0009456 Bibb 23 May 2008 Cobb, Richard
s.n.
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
UNA00049662 Mobile _ May 1878 Mohr, Charles
s.n.
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
AUA000008463 Geneva 9 Jul 1990 Diamond, Alvin R.
7022
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UNA00049657 Tuscaloosa 23 May 1974 Brown
24
UNA
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
JSU124345 Houston 8 May 1976 Kral, Robert
57962
JSU
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
TROY000002995 Escambia 26 May 1995 Brittain, Cynthia L.
271
TROY
Tetragonotheca helianthoides Linnaeus
AUA000008485 Tallapoosa 27 May 1976 Rutland, David W.
3046
AUA
Tetragonotheca Helianthoides L.
UWAL0009457 Sumter 14 May 2007 Keener, Brian R.
3609
UWAL
Tetragonotheca helianthoides L.
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