Pennisetum glaucum

Family:POACEAE
Species:Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
Common Name:Pearl Millet
Habitat:**
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Herb
Duration:**
Category:Vascular
USDA Symbol:PEGL2
Plant Notes:Pearl Millet is an introduced herbaceous annual in the Grass family (Poaceae). It is native to the Sahel region of Africa from Sudan to Senegal. The species has been cultivated for over 4,000 years and is grown in tropical and subtropical countries world-wide. In occurs throughout Alabama. Pearl Millet grows on roadsides, along railroad tracks, and in disturbed areas. It is an annual with a fibrous root system. Stems are from 3-5 feet in height. Stems are usually unbranched, but tillers (above ground shoots produced at the base of a grass plant) are often present. Prop roots (roots produced above ground and angled away from the stem into the soil) are often present. The stems are green or reddish in color, glabrous, with (usually) upwardly bearded nodes. Leaves are alternate, linear, and glabrous or pubescent. The base of the leaf blade partially wraps around the stem. The leaf collar (the area where the blade meets the sheath) is pubescent with upward pointing hairs. The leaf sheath is glabrous or pubescent. Flowers are produced in a dense spike-like raceme. The fruit is a grain. Pearl Millet is often grown in semi-arid regions with too little rain for corn or sorghum. It is a major food crop in parts of Africa and India. In the United States, it is grown primarily for its grain which is used for livestock feed (mainly chickens in the US), and for bird seed (the round white or tan seed). It is also used as hay or silage for cattle. It is sometimes planted to stabilize soil and prevent erosion. Ornamental forms have been developed including a reddish-purple selection known as “Purple Majesty”. Pearl Millet is a warm season annual that is easily grown from seed. It prefers a sandy soil and full sun.--A. Diamond
Taxonomic Notes:**
Status:Not Native
References:**
Specimen: View specimen details in the Alabama Herbarium Consortium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyPOACEAE - Grass family
Genus Pennisetum
Species Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown - Pearl Millet

Citation

Citation PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (Linnaeus) R. Brown, Prodr. 195. 1810.
Basionym: Panicum glaucum Linnaeus 1753.
Type: SRI LANKA: Without data, Herb. Hermann 44 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Terrell, Taxon 25: 300-301. 1976.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Alopecurus typhoides Alopecurus typhoides Burman f., Fl. Indica 27. 1768, nom. illegit.Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759. 
Cenchrus pycnostachyus Cenchrus pycnostachyus Steudel, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 109. 1854.  
Cenchrus spicatus Cenchrus spicatus (Linnaeus) Cavanilles, Descr. Pl. 304, 614. 1802.Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759. 
Chaetochloa glauca Chaetochloa glauca (Linnaeus) Lamson-Scribner, U.S.D.A. Div. Agrost. Bull. 4: 39. 1897.Panicum glaucum Linnaeus 1753. 
Chaetochloa lutescens Chaetochloa lutescens Stuntz, U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Indust. Invent. Seeds 31: 86. 1914, nom. illegit.Panicum lutescens Weigel 1772, nom. illegit.; Panicum glaucum Linnaeus 1753. 
Chamaeraphis glauca Chamaeraphis glauca (Linnaeus) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 767. 1891.Panicum glaucum Linnaeus 1753. 
Holcus spicatus Holcus spicatus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 1305. 1759. INDIA: Without data (lectotype: Plukenet, Phytographia t. 32(4). 1691). Lectotypified by Davidse, in Dassanayake et al., Revised Handb. Fl. Ceylon 8: 363. 1994.
Ixophorus glaucus Ixophorus glaucus (Linnaeus) Nash, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 423. 1895.Panicum glaucum Linnaeus 1753. 
Panicum americanum Panicum americanum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 56. 1753. Without data (lectotype: Clusius, Rar. Pl. Hist. 2: 215(icon). 1601). Lectotypified by Clayton & Renvoize, in Polhill, Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Gramineae 3: 672. 1982.
Panicum caeruleum Panicum caeruleum Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768, nom. illegit.Panicum americanum Linnaeus 1753.  
Panicum glaucum Panicum glaucum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 56. 1753. SRI LANKA: Without data, Herb. Hermann 44 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Terrell, Taxon 25: 300-301. 1976.
Panicum indicum Panicum indicum Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768.  
Panicum lutescens Panicum lutescens Weigel, Obs. Bot. 20. 1772, nom. illegit.Panicum glaucum Linnaeus 1753.  
Panicum spicatum Panicum spicatum (Linnaeus) Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 1: 286. 1820.Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759. 
Penicillaria arabica Penicillaria arabica A. Braun ex Andersson, Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 962. 1865.  
Penicillaria ciliata Penicillaria ciliata Willdenow, Enum. Pl. 1037. 1809.  
Penicillaria deflexa Penicillaria deflexa Andersson, Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 965. 1865.  
Penicillaria mossambicensis Penicillaria mossambicensis Klotzsch ex Müller Stuttgartensis, Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 965. 1865. MOZAMBIQUE
Penicillaria nigritarum Penicillaria nigritarum Schlechtendal, Linnaea 25: 561. 1852.  
Penicillaria roxburghii Penicillaria roxburghii A. Braun ex Müller Stuttgartensis, Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 966. 1865.  
Penicillaria spicata Penicillaria spicata (Linnaeus) Willdenow, Enum. Pl. 1037. 1809.Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759. 
Penicillaria typhoidea Penicillaria typhoidea Figari & DeNotaris, Agrost. Aegypt. 55. 1853, nom. illegit.Pennisetum typhoideum Richard 1805, nom. illegit; Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759. 
Penicillaria typhoides Penicillaria typhoides Schlechtendal, Linnaea 25: 559. 1852, nom. illegit.Alopecurus typhoides Burman f. 1768; Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759. 
Pennisetum americanum [con]var. spicatum Pennisetum americanum (Linnaeus) Leeke, [con]var. spicatum (Linnaeus) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 8: 72. 1971.Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1753. 
Pennisetum americanum subsp. typhoideum Pennisetum americanum (Linnaeus) Leeke, subsp. typhoideum Maire & Weiller, Fl. Afrique N. 1: 339. 1952.Pennisetum typhoideum Richard 1805, nom. illegit.; Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1753. 
Pennisetum anchylochaete Pennisetum anchylochaete Stapf & C. E. Hubbard, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 294. 1933. NIGERIA
Pennisetum cinereum Pennisetum cinereum Stapf & C. E. Hubbard, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 298. 1933. GOLD COAST
Pennisetum gambiense Pennisetum gambiense Stapf & C. E. Hubbard, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 297. 1933. GAMBIA
Pennisetum gibbosum Pennisetum gibbosum Stapf & C. E. Hubbard, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 299. 1933. NIGERIA
Pennisetum leonis Pennisetum leonis Stapf & C. E. Hubbard, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 296. 1933. SIERRA LEONE
Pennisetum maiwa Pennisetum maiwa Stapf & C. E. Hubbard, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 297. 1933. NIGERIA
Pennisetum megastachyum Pennisetum megastachyum Steudel, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 108. 1854.  
Pennisetum nigritarum Pennisetum nigritarum (Schlechtendal) T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afric. 5: 781. 1894.Penicillaria nigritarum Schlechtendal 1852. 
Pennisetum nigritarum var. deflexum Pennisetum nigritarum (Schlechtendal) T. Durand & Schinz, var. deflexum (Andersson) T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afric. 5: 781. 1894.Penicillaria deflexa Andersson 1865. 
Pennisetum pycnostachyum Pennisetum pycnostachyum (Steudel) Stapf & C. E. Hubbard, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 270. 1933.Cenchrus pycnostachyus Steudel 1854. 
Pennisetum spicatum Pennisetum spicatum (Linnaeus) Körnicke, in Körnicke & Werner, Handb. Getreideb. 1: 284. 1885.Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759. 
Pennisetum spicatum var. typhoideum Pennisetum spicatum (Linnaeus) Körnicke, var. typhoideum T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afric. 5: 785. 1894, nom. inadmiss. Pennisetum spicatum (Linnaeus) Körnicke 1885; Pennisetum typhoideum Richard 1805, nom. illegit.; Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759.
Pennisetum typhoides Pennisetum typhoides Stapf & C. E. Hubbard, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933: 271. 1933, nom. illegit.Alopecurus typhoides Burman f. 1768; Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759. 
Pennisetum typhoideum Pennisetum typhoideum Richard, in Persoon, Syn. Pl. 1: 72. 1805, nom. illegit.Holcus spicatus Linnaeus 1759. 
Pennisetum americanum Pennisetum americanum (Linnaeus) Leeke, Z. Naturwiss. 79: 52. 1907.Panicum americanum Linnaeus 1753. 
Setaria glauca Setaria glauca (Linnaeus) Palisot de Beauvois, Ess. Agrostogr. 51, 178. 1812.Panicum glaucum Linnaeus 1753. 
Setaria lutescens Setaria lutescens F. T. Hubbard, Rhodora 18: 232. 1916, nom. illegit.Panicum lutescens Weigel 1772, nom. illegit.; Panicum glaucum Linnaeus 1753. 
Setariopsis glauca Setariopsis glauca (Linnaeus) Sampaio, Herb. Port. 4. 1914.Panicum glaucum Linnaeus 1753. 

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort; choose a county or herbaria to filter the specimen data.

Counties included on distribution map: Autauga, Baldwin, Butler, Coffee, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Dale, Escambia, Jackson, Lee, Morgan, Pike

Counties represented by specimen data listed below:

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: AUA, JSU, SAMF, TROY, USAM, UWAL

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Barcode / Accession No. County Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
Image
JSU100515 Jackson 13 Aug 1998 K. R. Brodeur
1219
JSU
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
UWAL0043460 Baldwin 08 Nov 2001 Larsen, H.S.
762
UWAL
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.
SAMF0001665 Butler 11 Aug 2007 Diamond, A. R.
17893
SAMF
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
AUA000035696 Lee 06 Jul 2011 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
5098
AUA
CENCHRUS AMERICANUS (L.) O. MORRONE
TROY000027339 Autauga 27 Oct 2002 Emily Walker
12
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
UWAL0009173 Crenshaw 11 Oct 2008 Diamond, A.R.
20274
UWAL
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.
TROY000016689 Crenshaw 11 Oct 2008 Alvin R. Diamond
20274
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
UWAL0039785 Coffee 24 Sep 2017 Diamond, Alvin R.
27942
UWAL
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
TROY000012541 Butler 11 Aug 2007 Alvin R. Diamond
17893
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
AUA000035695 Lee 06 Jul 2011 HANSEN, CURTIS J.
5098
AUA
CENCHRUS AMERICANUS (L.) O. MORRONE
UWAL0047553 Baldwin 05 Nov 2009 Barger, T. Wayne
Perd-664
UWAL
Penisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.
TROY000049253 Autauga 07 Aug 2018 Matthew R. Parker
1755
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
TROY000029816 Coffee 03 Nov 2004 Meena Walton
5
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
TROY000046380 Coffee 24 Sep 2017 Alvin R. Diamond
27942
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
UWAL0039807 Pike 25 Sep 2017 Diamond, Alvin R.
27943
UWAL
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
JSU100516 Morgan 11 Aug 1975 R. D. Whetstone
6136
JSU
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
TROY000034214 Conecuh 29 Oct 2011 Alvin R. Diamond
22667
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
UWAL0009676 Crenshaw 29 Oct 2011 Diamond, Alvin R.
22667
UWAL
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
TROY000042712 Coffee 26 Jul 2015 Alvin R. Diamond
26645
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
TROY000012542 Dale 25 Oct 2003 Robert Kral
94674
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
UWAL0031935 Coffee 26 Jul 2015 Diamond, Alvin R.
26645
UWAL
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
USAM000012464 Escambia 09 Jun 1969 Robert Kral
35214
USAM
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
TROY000046379 Pike 25 Sep 2017 Alvin R. Diamond
27943
TROY
Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus) R. Brown
UWAL0043459 Baldwin 07 Jul 2007 Larsen, H.S.
1631
UWAL
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.
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